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AP Physics. Chapter 1: Measurement. Intro to Physics. Classical Physics- Mechanics (Newton) Thermodynamics (Watt/Carnot/Diesel) Optics (Huygens/Young/Fresnel) Electricity and Magnetism (Maxwell) Solid understanding Prior to 1900’s. Intro. Modern Physics Late 1800’s

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ap physics

AP Physics

Chapter 1: Measurement

intro to physics
Intro to Physics
  • Classical Physics-
    • Mechanics (Newton)
    • Thermodynamics (Watt/Carnot/Diesel)
    • Optics (Huygens/Young/Fresnel)
    • Electricity and Magnetism (Maxwell)
    • Solid understanding Prior to 1900’s
intro
Intro
  • Modern Physics
    • Late 1800’s
    • Discoveries made that cannot be explained by theories of Classical Physics
    • Relativity (motion at/near c)

[Einstein]

    • Quantum Mechanics (atomic structure/behavior)

[Bohr, Heisenberg, deBroglie, Schrodinger etc)

    • Onset of the Nuclear Age
intro1
Intro
  • Where are we now?
    • Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

(macroscopic) (microscopic)

      • GUT/TOE
    • Current Research/Theories-
      • Higgs-Boson: early indications that it does in fact exist
        • Statistical Probability of approximately “5 sigma”
      • Non-zero Mass Neutrinos
      • String Theory (M-Theory) multidimensional (11)
1 1 standards of measurement
1.1 Standards of Measurement

Standardized System of Measurement allows collaboration/repetition/verifcation

Basic Quantities- (Mechanics)

Length Mass Time

Derived Quantities- Combinations of basics

Ex: Force = mass x length/time2

slide6
1.1
  • Standards- International System of Units

(Le Systeme International d’unites- SI)

    • Length Meter (m)
      • Distance light travels in 1/299792458th sec
slide7
1.1
  • Mass International Standard Kilogram (Kg)
    • Kg Standard Platinum-Iridium Alloy Cylinder
    • Height = Diameter (39.17 mm) minimizes surface area
    • Incredibly low Reactivity
    • Held at IBWM, Sevres France
    • Copies Distributed to other Nations (US held at NIST)
slide8
1.1
  • Time second (s)
    • Cesium-133 Atomic Fountain Clock
    • 1 second based on resonant frequency of 9,192,631,770 radiation oscillations (periods of vibration).
    • Will not gain/lose a second in 100 million years.
slide9
1.1

Metric Prefixes

See Table 1.4 (page 7)

KNOW 10-9 - 109 (reference for others)

Scientific Notation

Generally used for numbers smaller/larger than

10-3 - 103

1 2 modeling
1.2 Modeling
  • Models- THEORY used to account for observed phenomenon/make reliable predictions

Ex: Theory of Matter

Matter->

Atom ->

Sub-atomic particles->

Quarks->

Strings?

1 3 density and atomic mass
1.3 Density and Atomic Mass
  • Density- Mass per unit volume (length3)
    • (rho) units: kg/m3 g/cm3
  • Atomic Mass- single atom expressed in AMU

(1 u = 1.660 538 7 x 10-7 kg)

  • Remember :
    • 1 mole = 6.02x1023 atoms
    • Molar Mass = Atomic Mass in grams
  • Solve Example 1.1 Page 10
1 4 dimensional analysis
1.4 Dimensional Analysis
  • Dimension- Physical Nature of a Quantity

Length (L) Mass (M) Time (T)

Area (L2) Volume (L3) Speed (L/T) Accel (L/T2)

Deriving/Verifying Expressions- Dimensions treated as algebraic quantities, same on both sides of expression.

Only add/subtract like dimensions.

slide14
1.4
  • Try a couple
1 5 converting units
1.5 Converting Units
  • Different Standards within a given dimension.

Ex: 1 mi = 1609 m

Units are also treated as algebraic quantities.

Ex: Convert 5’ 10” -> m

1 6 estimates and order of magnitude
1.6 Estimates and Order of Magnitude
  • Quick Estimates when an exact answer is not needed.
    • Order of Magnitude (nearest power of 10)
      • Ex: 0.0082 -> .01 -> 10-2
      • Ex: 365 -> 400 -> 4x102
      • Up/Down work out
      • Try Estimating:
        • Steps across the US
        • Breaths in a lifetime
1 7 significant figures and uncertainty
1.7 Significant Figures and Uncertainty
  • Significant Figures
    • Measurement Precision
      • Measurements Estimated between smallest marking
      • Ex: 20.25 cm ± 0.03 cm
    • Problem Solving
      • Generally Keep the fewest number of S.F. given
      • Usually 3
slide18
1.7
  • Uncertainty Calculations
    • 2 Methods
      • Treat Measurement and Uncertainty like a Binomial to calculate.

Ex: Find the area of 10.0 m ± 0.1 m by 5.0 m ± 0.1 m

slide19
1.7
      • Or Add the two fractional (%) uncertainties.
      • Same Example
  • Problems
    • Black# = Straightforward
    • Blue# = Intermediate
    • Pink# = Challenging
    • Box# = Full Solution in Study Guide (See me)
    • WWW = Resources/coaching at www.pse6.com **
slide20
HW
  • 4, 9, 11, 12, 20, 22, 31, 49, 55, 61