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The environmental cost of textiles. What effect does our buying behaviour have on the environment? As consumers what can we do to make a difference?. Environmental pollution.

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the environmental cost of textiles
The environmental cost of textiles
  • What effect does our buying behaviour have on the environment?
  • As consumers what can we do to make a difference?
environmental pollution
Environmental pollution
  • the addition of any substance or form of energy (e.g., heat, sound, radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown, recycling, or storage in some harmless form.
  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Land pollution
  • Noise pollution
  • Chemical pollutants
the environmental cost of textiles3
The environmental cost of textiles
  • Key issues to consider
  • Fibre production
  • Fabric production including spinning, weaving, knitting, pre-treatment, dyeing and finishing
  • Production of products
  • Retail and distribution
fibre production
Fibre production
  • Natural
  • Synthetic
  • Regenerated
fibre production5
Fibre production
  • Natural
  • Sustainable resources. Biodegradable
  • Plant
  • Cotton - heavy use of pesticides. Annually 10,000 fatalities of pesticide poisoning in third world countries. Vast quantities of water required for production (?). Air pollution
  • Animal
  • Sheep - methane gas production. Scouring uses vast quantities of water
  • Silk – ethical/moral issues with regards to extraction of silk from the worm
fibre production6
Fibre production
  • Synthetic
  • Unsustainable resource
  • Non bio-degradable
  • Petrochemical
fibre production7
Fibre production
  • Regenerated
  • Sustainable resource
  • Bio-degradable
  • Environmentally friendly (Lyocell production) v’s non-environmentally friendly (Viscose production)
  • Hot – Bamboo fibre – plant can grow 4 foot per day(?)
fabric production
Fabric production
  • Spinning
  • Weaving/Knitting
  • Pre-treatment
  • Dyeing
  • Finishing
fabric production9
Fabric production
  • Spinning
  • Air pollution - may affect humans directly, causing a smarting of the eyes or coughing.
  • Noise pollution
fabric production10
Fabric production
  • Weaving/Knitting
  • Air pollution
  • Noise pollution
fabric production11
Fabric production

Chemical pollution

pre-treatment include:

  • Scouring
  • Bleaching
  • Mercerization
  • Singeing
  • Optical brightening-fluorescent colourless dyes,
  • And others
fabric production12
Fabric production
  • Dyeing
  • Principal pollutants: residual colour in effluent.
  • The pollutant load of discharged dye liquor is generally low, although reactive dyes still have relatively poor exhaustion rates. Where these dyes are used coloured effluent is still a problem.
  • Water usage in dyeing is relatively high since it not only includes the dye liquor, but also all the preparative, rinsing and finishing stages involved in the application of colour. Typically, from 4 to 50 litres of water is used to dye each kg of textile. This ratio is highly dependent on the type of dye machine, the fabric to be dyed and the class of dyestuff used to match the customer’s requirements.
fabric production13
Fabric production
  • Finishing
  • Principal pollutants: Fume, volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), and isocyanates.
  • A wide range of solvent types are still used, although in much lower volumes, in coating and lamination processing. Where emissions exceed consent, which in the UK varies between 50mg/m³ and 150mg/m³ (as carbon), then process modification, such as solvent replacement or if this is not possible then some form of abatement is required. This can be done using carbon absorption or thermal oxidation/incineration, usually with heat recovery.
  • The formulations used in lamination and some coating processes commonly include isocyanate. The health implications of inhaling significant levels of this chemical are severe, and so strict limits are set on both workroom exposure and process emission concentrations to atmosphere.
production of products
Production of products
  • Garment processing to include stone-washing, bleaching and sand-blasting. – see PowerPoint denim and the environment
  • Garment dyeing
  • Post-cure garments such as variants of non-iron/easy care
  • Research Okeo-tex
retail and distribution
Retail and distribution
  • Fast fashion
  • Disposable fashion
  • Fads v’s classics
  • Shipping/air
  • Carbon foot print
useful website
Useful website:

www.e4s.org.uk

www.waronwant.org

www.oeko-tex.???

http://www.americanapparel.net/

http://www.cleanclothes.org/

http://www.organicconsumers.org/clothes/

http://www.labourbehindthelabel.org/

http://www.nosweat.org.uk/

http://www.sweatshopwatch.org/

the environmental cost of textiles17
The Environmental Cost of Textiles
  • http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/444304/444639/?lang=_e
  • http://www.e4s.org.uk/