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Character Education Ethical Choices. National Organization Character Counts! Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003. True Education.

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character education ethical choices

Character Education Ethical Choices

National Organization

Character Counts!

Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003

true education
True Education
  • “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically... Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.” — Martin Luther King Jr., Nobel Prize-winning 20th-century American civil rights leader
real character
Real Character
  • “The measure of a man's real character is what he would do if he knew he would never be found out.” — Baron Thomas Babington Macauley, early 19th-century English historian
  • "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society."— Theodore Roosevelt, 19th/20th century American adventurer and politician, Nobel Prize-winning U.S. president
  • "Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it." — Proverbs, 22:6
what is it you want your students to be when they graduate from your high school
What is it you want your students to be when they graduate from your high school?
  • In groups of 3 discuss characteristics you think students should have when they graduate from your high school (3 minutes)
  • Select a spokesperson to share these characteristics with the rest of the class (5 minutes)
  • Compare the characteristics you have listed with those listed by fortune 500 companies.
what is it that employers want list skills from most wanted to least handout
What is it that Employers Want?List skills from most wanted to least. (handout)
  • Interpersonal Skills
  • Leadership
  • Writing
  • Teamwork
  • Oral Communication
  • Reading
  • Computation
  • Problem-Solving
  • Listening
  • Creative Thinking
  • Teamwork (SCANS)
  • Problem-solving (TAKS & SCANS)
  • Interpersonal Skills (SCANS)
  • Oral Communication (SCANS)
  • Listening (SCANS)
  • Creative Thinking (SCANS)
  • Leadership (SCANS)
  • Writing (TAKS)
  • Reading (TAKS)
scans handout
SCANS (Handout)

Secretaries Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills

  • Foundational Skills (TAKS)
  • Competency Skills (Life-Long Skills)
    • Allocation of Resources – Team Work
    • Allocation of Information -Life-long Learning, Research, and Communication
    • Interpersonal Skills – Six Pillars
    • System Thinking – See the big picture (integration of real-world skills)
    • Technology Skills
6 pillars of character
6 Pillars of Character
  • Respect
  • Responsibility
  • Fairness
  • Caring
  • Civic Duty (Citizenship)
  • Trustworthiness
domains involved in the development of character
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • Cognitive
    • A Cognitive domain – intellectual abilities – Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Rote memorization
    • Knowledge & Comprehension
    • Application
    • Synthesis
    • Evaluation & Judgment
domains involved in the development of character12
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • Domain for Creative & Critical Thinking
    • F7 Creative Thinking - Uses imagination freely, combines ideas or information in new ways, makes connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, and reshapes goals in ways that reveal new possibilities.
domains involved in the development of character13
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • F8 Decision Making - Specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives, considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative.
    • Determine the decision to be made
    • Gather information that will help make the decision
    • Determine several options or choices
    • Weigh (evaluate) the options or choices
    • Select and carry out one option
    • Reflect on the results of your decision to help you in future decisions
domains involved in the development of character14
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • F9 Problem Solving - Recognizes that a problem exists (i.e., there is a discrepancy between what is and what should or could be); identifies possible reasons for the discrepancy; devises and implements a plan of action to resolve it; evaluates and monitors progress; and revises plan as indicated by findings.
domains involved in the development of character15
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • F10 Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye - Organizes and processes symbols, pictures, graphs, objects or other information; for example, sees a building from a blueprint, a system's operation from schematics, the flow of work activities from narrative descriptions, or the taste of food from reading a recipe.
domains involved in the development of character16
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • Fll Knowing How To Learn - Recognizes and can use learning techniques to apply and adapt new knowledge and skills in both familiar and changing situations and is aware of teaming tools such as personal teaming styles (visual, aural, etc.), formal learning strategies (note taking or clustering items that share some characteristics), and informal teaming strategies (awareness of unidentified false assumptions that may lead to faulty conclusions).
domains involved in the development of character17
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • Knowing how to Ask Questions, asking the right questions, Research Skills. Knowing how to determine when a topic has been adequately researched
domains involved in the development of character18
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • F12 Reasoning - Discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship between two or more objects and applies it in solving a problem; uses logic to draw conclusions from available information; extracts rules or principles from a set of objects or written text; applies rules and principles to a new situation or determines which conclusions are correct when given a set of facts and a set of conclusions. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed
domains involved in the development of character19
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • Psycho-motor Domain: physical skills and the new brain research which tie these together to improve reading and comprehension skills. Kinesthetic movement assists the brain in long-term memory. How many of you have ever been to Grand Canyon? Name a book you read in the fall of your third year in school.
domains involved in the development of character20
Domains involved in the Development of Character
  • . Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
    • which reflect Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) –
    • punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and “not getting caught by authority”.
    • Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating.
    • Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development22
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) –
    • punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and “not getting caught by authority”.
    • Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating.
    • Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development23
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit)
    • Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me.
    • Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”
    • Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development24
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit)
    • Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me.
    • Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”
    • Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development25
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • As people mature, then hopefully we move to more CONVENTIONAL Moral values by performing good or right roles, in maintaining the conventional order, and in meeting others’ expectations
kohlberg s six stages of moral development26
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage III (is call the “black & white” stage
    • Concern about groups of people, and conformity to group norms.
    • There is a two-way relationship (we are good to each other).
    • Motive is to be a “nice guy or gal”, to be accepted.
    • Affection plays a strong role. We will visit the Affective Domain Next.
    • This stage becomes frustrating because we are always trying to follow everyone else’s rules and to please everyone…which of course, cannot be done.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development27
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage IV Concern for order in society. Honor & duty come from keeping the rules of society.
    • The focus is on preserving the society….not just obeying it.
    • Being Dutiful plays a part here.
    • During stage IV, the individual looks to rules, laws, or codes for guidance in dilemma situations
    • the laws have wisdom and are the positive glue of society.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development28
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • The final stages deal with a Basis of Judgment – Bloom’s uses this as his highest level of cognitive thinking.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development29
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage V: Is characterized by Autonomy. It is called the social contract, legalistic orientation.
    • What is right is what the whole society decides. There are no legal absolutes….everyone must agree …then it is OK.
    • Changes are made in the law for reasons that suit the common or greatest good for the greatest number of people.
    • This is the problem-solving stage. How to make it work for everyone.
    • Reasoning at this level requires the ability to think abstractly (to view laws as a system of governance), to weigh competing claims, to take a stand and yet remain open in the future.
    • This moral level may take place only when children can see more than one POINT OF VIEW..
kohlberg s six stages of moral development30
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Stage VI: Universal ethical Principals – “Golden Rule”.
    • What is right is a decision of one’s conscience, based on ideas about rightness that apply to everyone (all nations, all people)
    • A higher law. “Thou shall not kill”.
    • The most important ethical principles deal with justice, equality, and the dignity of all people.
    • These principles are higher than any given law….and one has the right to disobey unjust laws.
    • Saint Augustine said that, “an unjust law is no law at all” Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development31
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Kohlberg describes the Golden rule has having two parts.
  • 1. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you and (2) love your neighbor as yourself
kohlberg s stages
Kohlberg’s Stages
  • *****Note: None of these moral stages (1-6) are “wrong”…… an appropriate age level …all people should move through each of these stages…
  • Being “stuck” at a lower developmental stage while maturing in age, would be undesirable.
kohlberg s stages33
Kohlberg’s Stages
  • We KNOW that lack of development in the Cognitive Domain or even the Physical domain is tragic.
  • We must also see that lack of development is a tragedy in the Moral Development DOMAN.
kohlberg s stages34
Kohlberg’s Stages
  • Inversely, one must be careful not to push children who are not cognitively ready into a stage of moral decision-making for which they are not ready.
kohlberg s stages35
Kohlberg’s Stages
  • It is ridiculous to have small children arguing over moral dilemmas until they have developed a since of right and wrong.
      • “One precaution,” said Plato, “is not to let students taste of arguments while they are young, the danger being that they would develop a taste for arguments rather than a taste for truth. Young minds, like young puppies, said Plato, would only “pull and tear at arguments”
      • For Plato, it was much more important for young people to learn to love a virtue than to argue about it.
kohlberg s six stages of moral development36
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:
  • Piaget and Kohlberg believe that social understanding leads to moral motivation
domain of the 7 intelligences
Domain of the 7 Intelligences:

·    Verbal / Linguistic

    Logical / Mathematical

   Visual / Spatial

·   Body / Kinesthetic

·  Musical / Rhythmic

·  Intrapersonal (within one’s self – reflection, depth of thinking)

·  Interpersonal (cooperation, negotiation, collaboration – Six Pillars

what character is and what it is not
What Character is and What it is NOT
  • Character is what you are when nobody is looking.
  • Character is the result of values and beliefs
  • Character is a habit that becomes second nature
  • Character is not reputation or what others think about you
  • Character is not how much better you are than others
  • Character is NOT RELATIVE
ethics what it is and what it is not
Ethics – What it is and What it is NOT
  • Ethics is not always what is done, but what OUGHT to be done.
knowing to do good
Knowing to do good
  • Children are not born ethical giants
  • They do not learn it by osmosis.
  • Children learn more from what they see, than what they are told.
  • Conflicting ethical values tend to reduce to the lowest common denominator
  • High expectations & Accountability are corner stones for ethical maturity.
what works
What Works
  • WHAT WORKS? Social understanding comes through
    • modeling,
    • reinforcement,
    • and an action plan for using education to steer ethical decisions.
social contract
Social Contract
  • As people come to understand the possibilities and conditions of cooperation, they come to appreciate their part in supporting social arrangements that follow moral principals.
piaget kohlberg believe
Piaget & Kohlberg Believe
  • that education overcomes prejudice,
  • exposure to great minds (literature) fosters social responsibility,
  • and travel (experiential social contact) assists in the broadening of the mind.
    • Versus Vicarious Experiences of TV & Movies
  • These findings tell us that moral judgment is not
  • a matter of MEMORIZING special terminology,
  • or of mastering certain tricks of argument,
  • or of being able to drop the names of moral philosophers;
  • Moral judgment reflects basic natural growth of a guided good conscience …if it is not halted by outside circumstances or forces.
  • The most fundamental research recognizes the way people naturally formulate their moral judgments has a lot to do with their underlying conceptions of cooperation in social settings.
real character development
Real Character Development
  • Students might pass a course by memorizing facts and learning empty academic games, but learning moral decision-making involves relating real behavior to decision making in a real-world setting.
  • Integrated over multiple settings….over time
practice makes perfect
Practice Makes Perfect
  • Making good ethical choices is the key to becoming a moral person.
  • Being allowed to make choices is essential then to becoming a person of character.
affective domain
Affective Domain
  • What choices are made & how we FEEL after making those choices is a key feature of our last & final Domain.
affective domain50
Affective Domain
  • The Final Domain we will discuss today is the Affective Domain.
  • What is it we want our students to be when they leave our institutions of learning?
  • Children must be taught character with consideration for the appropriate age and mental capacity.
what is it that we want them to be able to do
What is it that we want them to be able to do?
  • How do we become known as the embodiment of a characteristic, virtue or trait?
    • Kind
    • Fair
    • Gracious
    • Caring
    • Trustworthy
the affective domain
The Affective Domain
  • A. Awareness
  • B. Willingness
  • C. Controlled or Selected Attention
  • 2. RESPONDING: (Show some NEW behavior)
  • A. Acquiescence
  • B. Willingness
  • C. Satisfaction
  • 3. VALUING: (Show some definite INVOLVEMENT)
  • A. Acceptance
  • B. Preference
  • C. Commitment
  • 4. ORGANIZATION: (Value Clarification - Prioritize)
  • A. Conceptualization
  • B. Organization
  • 5 CHARACTERIZATION (Consistently acting in agreement with a value)
  • A. Generalized Set
  • B. Value Complex
the affective domain53
The Affective Domain

Analyzing what we need to Become and setting Goals

for Ourselves.

what does not work
What does not work?
  • Character education arises out of a concern for moral development and being a good person.
  • It is about self-improvement and achieving personal worthiness.
some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self improvement are
Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are:
  • A False sense of self-esteem, which is concerned about how good one, feels about him regardless of how one performs or behaves. It over emphasizes the “feeling good” and ignores the importance of “being good”
some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self improvement are56
Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are:
  • What must be remembered is that a genuine sense of self-esteem comes from doing good, and feeling of pride and confidence that follows the actions.
  • Character education is concerned with adding virtues to one’s life.
issues that defeats character education
Issues that defeats character education

. Some teachers think that by teaching ethics in an indirect manner that children will absorb good character. However, research and good educational practices have proven that children need to have concrete, real-world, direct approaches to new concepts and ideas.

  • The “hands-on” approach with actual decision-making activities repeatedly over time integrated throughout the curriculum, home life and sports life is needed to fill the character education vacuum. DON’T BE SUBTLE!
modeling is costly
Modeling Is Costly!
  • Children need teachers and parents to model and mentor them in good ethical decision-making.
  • They LEARN by doing. They UNLEARN by watching!
    • Visual cues, posters, incentives, awards, and stressing of the importance of character building must be pervasive.
talk the talk walk the talk
Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk
  • Children need to have habits instilled in them that reflect the virtues
    • Verbiage is Crucial!
      • “Be Nice”
      • “Be a Gentleman”
      • “Straighten Up”
      • “Keep Still”
      • “Shhhhhhhhh”
      • “Don’t”
talk the talk walk the talk60
Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk
  • Direct instruction with clear messages is needed to develop thinking and problem-solving skills.
    • Stolen Calculator Story
    • Stealing Music from Internet
    • Stealing Projects
talk the talk walk the talk61
Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk
  • Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choices
  • Mentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.
talk the talk walk the talk62
Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk
  • Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choices
  • Mentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.
talk the talk walk the talk63
Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk
  • Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg “The first step in raising a moral child is to treat a child morally”
10 steps that work
10 Steps that Work
  • Morality is respect. Teach children to respect themselves, others, and for all forms of life and the environment that sustains life
  • Know that children develop morality slowly and in stages … BE PATIENT…BE PERSISTANT
  • Teach by example-- BE HONEST. Tell them that you are not perfect. That you make mistakes….we are all learning and we can learn together how to make a better society.
10 steps that work65
10 Steps that Work
  • Teach by telling the TRUTH and clarifying the TRUTH by using concrete examples
  • Help children learn to think and think independently – Encourage reflection and encourage empathy
  • Help children to take on real responsibilities
  • Help children to feel valuable – that they make a difference in society – TEACH THEM TO SERVE OTHERS
10 steps that work66
10 Steps that Work

8. Balance independence and control – guided practice & debriefing – Help children to “grow” a good conscience instead of anesthetizing their conscience with rationalizations. Remember that we have some very powerful do what we think is best for ourselves, pursuing self-interest, happiness, health, love, sex, security, wealth, status, power – these are natural preoccupations of most people. They must be tempered with self-discipline, tenacity, and courage to do what is right.

10 steps that work67
10 Steps that Work
  • Love children and help them develop a positive self-concept – this will affect their attitude … and attitude is everything – it is one’s personal commitment to do what is right, good and proper. Ultimately, ethics is an action concept; it is about conduct and behavior….coming from an inward conviction of what is right & wrong.
  • Explain, explain, explain, teach, teach, teach, every act of misbehavior is a learning event and opportunity. What you permit you condone. What you condone you encourage; what you prohibit you condemn, what you condemn you discourage.
  • Be OPEN. Tell kids what you think is important,
  • BE HONEST, Tell them when you make mistakes…
  • MENTOR BY EXAMPLE…no one is perfect…we are all struggling to become better all our lives….no one “has arrived” at perfection…help them to understand that a person of good character works their entire life at building a quality character.
  • THINK OUTLOUD….help children hear what a person of character thinks about while trying to make a good decision.
  • MODEL Reflection – not only thinking about the past and how to learn from it….but also about future behavior – Olympic Athletes visualize performing each movement for a successful execution and performance
  • MANAGE behavior…don’t ignore it.
  • Help students to learn self-management techniques …gain independence …and self respect.
the josephson institute
The Josephson Institute
  • Nonpartisan Aspen Coalition
  • 300 teachers, counselors, ministers, clergymen, psychiatrists, coaches, social workers.
  • Non-negotiables
  • Reduced to lowest set of ideals
  • 6 Pillars of Character
6 pillars
6 Pillars
  • Respect
  • Responsibility
  • Citizenship – Civic Duty
  • Fairness
  • Caring
  • Trustworthiness
  • The essence of respect is to show solemn regard for the worth of people, including oneself.
  • The ethical duty is to treat everyone with respect – not to respect everyone in the sense that we admire them.
  • Treating people with respect means letting them know that their safety, and happiness matter, that they are important and worthy simply because they are fellow human beings.
  • Lubemire
  • Our duty to be respectful requires that we treat others with courtesy and consideration
  • It means we behave according to accepted notions of taste, propriety, and decency.
  • It means we honor traditions, customs, and beliefs important to others.
  • People are not things
  • All of us have a basic right to be treated with dignity
  • The well-being of all people is important; no person should be used simply as an instrument of another’s needs.
  • Live by the Golden Rule
  • Respect other’s dignity, privacy, freedom, and possessions
  • Be Courteous and Polite
  • Be Tolerant and Accepting of Differences
  • Respect the autonomy of others
respect does not
  • Use or manipulate others
  • Abuse, demean or mistreat anyone
  • Pre-judge or discriminate against others
rule of respect

All individuals are important and the well-being of each is a moral end in itself; never treat others as simply the means for your own gain or gratification.

rule of respect80

Respect is Given NOT demanded

  • How do we demonstrate Respect? (T Chart)
    • To Friends?
    • To Parents?
    • To Teachers?
    • To Strangers?
characteristics of respect
Characteristics of RESPECT
  • Tolerance
  • Acceptance
  • Autonomy
  • Privacy
  • Nonviolence
  • Courteous
  • Polite
  • Concerned
famous quotes about respect
Famous Quotes about RESPECT
  • “The honor we receive from those that fear us, is not honor” Montaigne Essays (1580-1588)
  • “Respect gained by fear is not real; it is only an empty pretense that turns to contempt the moment the threat disappears” Michael Josephson
  • “Respect, like love, has value only when it is given freely and out of genuine feelings.”
  • “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Jesus Christ
rule of universality
Rule of Universality
  • Do only those acts which you are willing to allow to become universal standards of behavior applicable to all people in similar situations.
  • Ask yourself, “If everyone did it would it be a good thing?”

“I will treat you like a gentleman, not because you are one, but because I am one”


In Groups of 4

Build a T Chart --- “Teachers Respect to Students”

Label 1 side “What it does not look like”

Label 2 side “What it does look like”

  • Life is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.
  • Responsibility requires us to recognize that what we do—and what we don’t do– matters, and that we are morally responsible for the consequences of our choices.
  • Responsibility means being accountable for what we do and who we are.
  • Everyone is responsible for the development of his or her personal character.
  • We can’t choose whether we are good looking, smart or athletic. We can’t choose our parents or the circumstances in which we grow up.
  • But all of us choose how to deal with the outrages and opportunities of life.
  • From these choices, our character is formed
  • Choosing NOT to choose is a choice.
  • Some of our choices are conscious and some are not.
  • We choose whether to be conscious and concerned about the consequences of what we say and do, including the choice to be willfully blind.
  • Do Your Duty
  • Be Accountable
  • Pursue Excellence
  • Exercise Self-Control
  • Acknowledge and meet your legal and moral obligations
  • Life is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.
responsibility terms




Job Descriptions

Relationship Obligations

Universal Ethical Principles

Religious Convictions



Responsibility - TERMS
  • Reaching Goals
  • Positive Outlook
  • Prudent
  • Rational
  • Time Management
  • Resource Management
  • Teamwork
  • Financial Independence
  • Self-motivated
  • Everything we do makes a difference
  • What we do and what we say starts a chain reaction that affects the lives of others
  • Decisions Activity.
  • Work Ethic
    • There is an ethical dimension to good work habits – the work ethic – when others depend on us to show up on time, prepared and ready to do our work and dedicated to stick with the job unit it is done.
dimensions of responsibility
Dimensions of Responsibility
  • Accountability. Our ability to reason and freedom to choose makes us morally autonomous and, therefore, accountable for our choices.
  • Duty. We are bound by principles of morality to make choices that honor rather than degrade universal ethical obligations to be trustworthy, respectful, responsible, fair, caring, and good citizens
  • Nuremburg Trials.
  • 9/11 and Student Email
  • Don’t blame others
  • Don’t buy into being a victim
  • Pursue excellence and take pride in everything you do
  • Do the best you can with what you have. No excuses.
look out for excuses
Look Out for Excuses
  • “That’s just the way I am” We are what we choose to be, nothing less and nothing more.
  • “It’s not my fault” Could I have done something that would have mattered?
  • “It’s not my job” Our moral duties often go beyond specific job responsibilities.
  • “It was legal” Legal does not always mean morally correct.
  • “Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you as by the attitude you bring to life; not so much by what happens to you as by the way your mind looks at what happens.” -- John Homer Miller

We are responsible for our attitudes.

  • Our attitudes propel us forward towards our victories or bog us down in defeat. They are what others see most of the personality within us; they describe us and define us, projecting the image we present to the world.
  • Our attitudes make us rich or poor, happy or unhappy, fulfilled or incomplete. They are the single most determining factor in every action we will ever make. We and our attitudes are inextricably combined. We are our attitudes and our attitudes are us.

--Shad Helmstetter

  • Blaming the wolf would not help the sheep much. The sheep must learn not to fall into the clutches of the wolf. – Mahatma Gandhi
  • The buck stops here – Harry Truman
  • Duty is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more. You should never wish to do less. -- Robert E. Lee
  • Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it. -- Abraham Lincoln
  • To ignore evil is to become an accomplice to it. -- Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice; it is not a thing to be waited for it is a thing to be achieved.– William Jennings Bryan
  • If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem. The price of greatness is responsibility. – Winston Churchill
  • Knowledge is power. Knowledge plus character is super power. – Houston police officer
civic duty citizenship
Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • Civic virtues refer to conduct that is desirable and praiseworthy but not morally mandated.
  • Citizenship are the duties, rights, conduct and responsibilities of the citizen of a state.
  • Respecting the rules, laws, and property of the state and doing your share to preserve them is your honest share in citizenship.
civic duty citizenship111
Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • What is a veteran?
  • Words to Star Spangled Banner and God Bless America
  • Discussing the words in the Pledge of Allegiance
  • Service Projects
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Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • Civic duty implies obligations to contribute to the overall public good. It refers to ethical obligations, standards of conduct that establish minimal requirements of ethical citizenship
  • Playing by the rules, obeying the law, and paying all taxes
  • Participating in the democratic process by voting, serving on a jury, reporting crimes, and testifying as a witness.
civic duty doing your share
Civic Duty – Doing Your Share
  • Protect the environment by conserving resources and minimizing waste and pollution.
  • Being a good citizen and a good neighbor.
  • Care about and pursue the common good.
  • Be a volunteer – help your school and community be better, cleaner and safer
  • Participating, voting, sharing your opinion, serving on committees, reporting wrongdoing, and paying taxes.
civic duty obeying the law
Civic Duty – Obeying the Law
  • The Vital Social Contract that makes a democracy work is the agreement that we will be governed by laws.
  • Rules of Engagement – “running naked in the woods”
  • Each of us gives up some personal freedom in order to achieve collective benefits of orderliness, economic stability, personal safety, and justice.
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Civic Duty – Obeying the Law
  • In a democracy we deal with unwise or unpleasant rules by changing the rules, not by disobedient conduct.
  • Compliance to immoral laws? – universal standards – walk through the six pillars, then act
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Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • Enforcement policies do NOT determine the validity of the law – if no one sees you, its OK.
  • Just because you have ACCESS, does NOT give you the right to STEAL.
  • What about Downloading Music from the Internet?.
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Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • Running for office, accepting appointments to office, working for candidates or issues.
  • Giving time and / or money to charitable and other social causes.
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Civic Duty -- Citizenship
  • Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country.

--John Fitzgerald Kennedy


First of ALL: “It is much more difficult to know what is fair than what is unfair. A just person is never knowingly unfair”—Michael Josephson

Being Fair is a moral obligation

Treat ALL people fairly

Listen to others & try to understand what they are feeling and saying.

Rushing judgment is UNFAIR.


Unfortunately, one man’s justice is another man’s injustice; one man’s beauty another’s ugliness; one man’s wisdom another’s folly”

--Ralph Waldo Emerson

  • Consider all the facts, including opposing views, before making decisions
  • Make impartial decisions, using the same criteria, rules, or standards for everyone
  • Correct your mistakes in judgment
  • Don’t take advantage of other people’s mistakes or ignorance
  • Don’t take more than your fair share
  • Don’t let personal preferences, prejudice or other feelings improperly interfere with decisions which should be based on merit.
  • Maturity is the ability to analyze & evaluate fairly after listening to all the facts & differing points of view.
  • 3 Volunteers
  • Job Interview
    • What is your name?
    • What is your favorite color?
    • Do you have a pet?
    • What color are your eyes?
    • Can you type?
  • Rewarding or Punishing indiscriminately is unfair and causes prejudice in society.
  • What does Fairness & Unfairness Sound Like / Look Like
  • Activity: Build a T Chart
perspectives on justice
  • Small fish --- “There is NO justice”
  • Medium fish – “There is SOME justice”
  • Big fish – “The world IS JUST.”

The innocent love justice, everyone else prefers mercy. -- Michael Josephson

  • All virtue is summed up in dealing justly – Aristotle
  • To receive instruction in wise behavior, Righteousness, justice and equity; Bible, Prov 1:3
  • Learn to do good; Seek justice; Bible, Isa 1:17
  • “It is not what a lawyer tells me I may do; but what humanity, reason and justice tell me I ought to do.”

--Edmund Burke

basic rules of unfairness
Basic Rules of UNFairness
  • It is unfair to impose punishment that is disproportionate to the offence.
  • Motives are important. Intentional violations and unintentional mistakes should be considered differently
  • It is unfair to handle similar matters inconsistently. When possible extenuating factors should be explicitly acknowledged as part of the statement of policy.
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Basic Rules of UNFairness
  • Legally Mandated Favoritism. Sometimes these are mandated to correct historic patterns, but whenever possible there should be equality among ALL people.
  • It is unfair to make a judgment that favors or discriminates against individuals based on improper factors.
  • Nepotism. Criteria for employment or promotion should be applied to everyone alike.
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Basic Rules of UNFairness
  • So many factors can go into the notion of a fair judgment, that oftentimes, we do not know what is truly fair. We do, however, know what is unfair, and our first obligation is to avoid being unfair.
establishing fairness in the classroom
Establishing Fairness in the Classroom
  • Respect Self
  • Respect Others (privacy, possessions, humanity, differences)
  • Respect Education
  • Respect the Environment
    • Don’t pollute my air, listen to music with headphones
  • Respect Resources (If you teach it, you can grade it)
    • Breaking pencils, erasers, throwing paper clips, staples
    • Playing games on computer instead of being productive
six theories of substantive fairness
Six Theories of Substantive Fairness
  • Merit
  • Need
  • Might
  • Equality
  • Seniority
  • Effort
theories of fairness
Theories of Fairness
  • EFFORT – a person is entitled to more if he/she tries harder irrespective of talent, ability, or need
  • SENIORITY – a person is entitled to more if he/she has been there longer irrespective of merit, need, power, or effort
  • EQUALITY – a person is entitled to an equal share irrespective of merit, need, power, or effort
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Theories of Fairness
  • MIGHT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can acquire irrespective of merit, need, or effort. Power determines what a person deserves; might makes right.
  • NEED – a person is entitled to whatever he/she needs. In a just system, everyone will have what they need. Excess above needs can be distributed by any other theory of justice.
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Theories of Fairness
  • MERIT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can earn or acquire based on skill, talent, and /or hard work.

Persons with little skill, talent or hard work are not “entitled” to anything except what they need.

3 rules to fair decisions
3 Rules to Fair Decisions
  • First, since disagreement and criticism are inevitable, we must content ourselves with reaching fair decisions based on personal conscience and ethical justifiable standards.

If you need to be liked or approved of by everyone, avoid accepting responsibility that requires tough choices. Charges of unfairness come with the territory.

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3 Rules to Fair Decisions
  • SECOND, we should be clear in our own minds about the CRITERIA used for making judgments. It is ONLY FAIR if EVERYONE knows the criteria beforehand.
  • THIRD, the PROCEDURES used to weigh a decision must be and appear to be fair. These procedures should be a matter of record. (Common knowledge)
  • The wide variety of approaches to fairness means that for every decision there will be people who will claim it is unfair.
procedural fairness
Procedural Fairness
  • Fair Notice
  • Impartiality
  • Gather of the Facts
  • Fair Hearing
fair notice
Fair Notice
  • Have the rules been posted? Has the person been given fair warning? Is the person unaware of the rule?
  • Is the judgment based on the CRITERIA ?
  • Have conclusion be made based on facts and clear evidence?
  • Has all the information been considered?
  • Are the conclusion clear?
gather facts
Gather Facts
  • Has judgment been suspended until all the opposing sides have been given time to give their statements?
  • Have you gathered facts without undo embarrassment or disclosing your suspicions to others?
  • Are there ambiguities that can be clarified?
fair hearing
Fair Hearing
  • Has everyone been given time and due process for a fair disclosure of their side of the story?
  • Has “right of confrontation” been given to the accused
  • Has everyone been allowed to explain, listen, and understand?
decision making
  • Decisions should be made and should appear to be made, carefully, honestly and objectively, with the knowledge that even a process of the greatest integrity does not always produce certainty.
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  • Even though the underlying concepts of fairness and justice are simple, almost intuitive, applying them in real life proves very difficult
  • Discussions among students on the Definitions, Process, and Results will help them to better understand both the importance and the effort needed in practicing FAIRNESS
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  • You are an employer who for budget reasons has to let go of one employee. What is FAIR?
  • Who do you let go?
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  • Able, your newest employee who is young and unmarried is your best producer. He gets more work done effectively than any other employee
  • Nettie is a competent worker of four years, a single mother with 3 small children at home, she needs the job most
  • Oldham has worked for the company for the longest, for 18 years and is two years away from retirement
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  • Tryhard is a good producer with terrific attitude and the hardest worker you have
  • Nepo, a competent employee is the son of one of the owners of the company.
  • Caring is the “GLUE” of society
  • Without CARING we are less than moral beings
  • Caring is the “GLUE” of society
  • Without CARING we are less than moral beings
    • Compassion
    • Kindness
    • Consideration
    • Charity
  • Caring takes TIME & ACTION
  • Teach children to love their family, friends, and community.  
  • Separate the person from the behavior or choices the person has made.
  • ACTIVITY: Draw a picture of caring.
  • A person of character is empathetic, helpful, considerate, and compassionate.
  • A caring person is one who strives to make life better for ALL people
  • A caring person helps people in need
  • Is NOT mean, critical, hurtful or insensitive
  • Make a list of things a caring person might do
  • Integrity = “wholeness”, predictable, consistent in thoughts, words, and actions, not “two faced”.
  • Honesty = sincerity, real, not hypocritical
  • Promise Keeping = accountable to promises that have been made
  • Loyalty = benefit of the doubt to those who you have a relationship with.
  • Sincerity = not trying to trap or make fun of others honest feelings. Essential for meaningful personal relationships that are rewarding & enduring & successful associations in school, social activities & workplace.
  • From your own experience:
  • What kinds of words or actions build or undermine trust?
  • People of character understand the importance of trust and pursue a life that makes them worthy of trust.
  • Even small lies & deceptions can topple towers of trust.
  • Towers of trust are built stone by stone, yet no tower is so tall or so strong that it can stand when lies & deception undermine its base.
  • Integrity is moral wholeness demonstrated by a consistency of thoughts, words, deed, and duties.
  • Beliefs: People with integrity listen to their conscience
  • Words: Have the courage to say what is right or wrong
  • Actions: Don’t do anything they think is wrong.
  • Moral Obligations – are not hypocrites. Their sense of duty to what is good.
  • A person of integrity has a wholeness like a whole number --- it is undivided, complete. There are not dark pieces hiding out of sight.
  • Integrity requires a discerning conscience that acts with good character regardless of personal cost, proclaiming openly the reason you act is on your understanding of right from wrong. There are no hidden agendas, to forked tongue, and not looking to judge.
  • Integrity requires both being true to oneself & living up to one’s highest and best personal values with courage and self discipline.
  • How does one always act with integrity?
  • A person with integrity is not reflex oriented. They are self-reflection oriented so they have thought clearly and act accordingly.
  • A person of integrity consistently behaves according to firm convictions about right & wrong.
  • Living up to good principles means that we always do what is right even when doing so will not get us something we want or will keep us our of trouble.
  • It is right to do right even if no one else is doing it.
  • Ethics is not for wimps! It takes moral courage to hold onto important values even in the face of criticism, embarrassment or pressure to do otherwise.
  • Honesty requires that one looks at all the facts. Communication & Conduct are the two keystones of honesty. Communication requires that one does not stay willingly blind. Candor, openness, and truthfulness lead to understanding. Understanding leads to conduct that is becoming of an honest person.
  • Cheating, stealing, sneaky behavior, deceitfulness are acts that demean one character. An honest person will not keep silent when silence is intended to cause another person to believe something that is not true.
  • A lie has speed, but the truth has endurance.
  • Promise Keeping: Do not make promises that you cannot or should not keep. The lack of promise keeping will make you loose respect for yourself. Good work habits demand reliability. Do not over book yourself so that you have to break good habits or destroy someone’s trust in you.
  • To a liar the lie is a means to manipulate.
  • To one being lied to a lie is a manipulation.
  • Loyalty: to stand by the relationships that you have made.
  • Give examples of Moral Dilemmas using "Trustworthiness".
  • Self Quiz
  • How do you rate yourself?
  • 1.  Tell the truth even when it may cost me.   Yes  No
  • 2.  Being sincere -- not being deceptive, tricky or sneaky.   Yes   No
  • 3.  Being candid and forthright, volunteering information others need or want to know.     Yes    No
  • 4.  Honoring another's property (not stealing).  Never taking what is not mine.  Yes  No
teaching character
  • “If you TEACH it, you can GRADE it”
  • “What gets Rewarded, gets Repeated”
  • “How do you reward RESPECT in your school?”
  • If praising virtues and condemning vices does not take place – you will betray one and encourage the other.
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  • “It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing -delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards.
  • It takes COURAGE to do the right thing.
  • Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.
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  • “It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing -delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards.
  • It takes COURAGE to do the right thing.
  • Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.
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  • Must distinguish between the human being and the behavior.
    • Child can fail math and still be a valuable person
    • When a person has a clear sense of dignity and self value, they can respect and care for others.
    • Teachers must avoid “shaming” techniques when addressing behavior management.
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community integration
Community Integration
  • Involve all areas of the community
  • Involve parents
  • Involve businesses
  • Have a systemic Plan

Arp Website!/Ethics.htm