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primary education

Primary Education

Presentation for Consultative Committee

16th July 2007

primary education initiatives
Primary Education : Initiatives
  • SSA initiated in 2001-02; effectively started in 2002-03.
  • Operation Blackboard merged with SSA.
  • NFE scheme modified to new EGS & AIE scheme, included under SSA
  • DPEP now only in 17 districts in 2 States under overall umbrella of SSA.
  • KGBV scheme merged with SSA w.e.f 1.04.07
what does ssa provide
WHAT DOES SSA PROVIDE :-
  • Providing basic facilities in each school
    • Setting up of primary schools within 1 k.m. radius
    • Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative Innovative Education centres as alternative schools.
    • Back to school programme through bridge courses and residential camps.
    • Additional classrooms – a room for every teacher with minimum of two teachers at Primary level
    • Toilets/drinking water/child friendly elements.
    • Additional teachers to get pupil teacher ratio of 40:1.
slide6

Access at Primary Stage

98% of rural population has access to primary school within 1 km. of habitation.

92000 EGS centres are providing education to 24 lakh children in sparsely populated habitations with relaxed norms in tribal areas.

About 28 lakh children are covered through context specific AIE intervention

slide7

Enrolment at Primary Stage

Gross Enrolment Ratios

  • GER at primary stage is 107.8.
  • GER < 100 in AP, Bihar, Haryana, J&K, Jharkhand, Kerala, Nagaland, Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi and Laksadweep
  • 52 lakh children in EGS and AIE

GER at Primary Level

out of school children

Goal – I contd…/-

Out of School Children

In lakhs

  • The number of out of school children is 75 lakh (2007) (3.5%).
  • 2.9% in 6-11 yrs OoSC
  • Number of districts with more than 50,000 OoSC has reduced from 48 (2005) to 24 (2007). (Assam 1, Bihar 11, Chattisgarh 1, Haryana 1, Orissa 1, West Bengal 9)
slide9

Bridging Gender Gap at primary

  • Girls enrolment increased from 43.7%(2000-2001)to 46.7%(2004-2005).
  • Gender gap reduced from 19 to 6 percent pts.
  • 48 distt. Gender Gap > 10% pts.
  • High gender gap
  • Bihar(24)Rajasthan (9)

 Gujarat(16)Jharkhand (16)

Districts with gender gap > 10% points

slide10

What does SSA Provide for Bridging Gender Gap

  • Programme for participation of girls
    • Free Text Books
    • National Programme on Education of Girls at Elementary level started in 3291 educationally backward blocks.
    • Innovative activities like pre-school centres/bridge courses/vocational education/bicycles etc.
    • Gender sensitization of education personnel and teachers.
    • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (residential schools) in educationally backward blocks launched in July, 2004.
slide11

Bridging Social Gaps – Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes

  • GER gap SC (nil) ST (2.15%pts )
  • State variations (GER Gap)
  • Primary (SC)

Delhi-28.01 Chandigarh-24.17 T.Nadu-12.22 Puducherry-7.8 Goa-4.38 Jharkhand-2.70 Bihar-2.60.

  • Primary (ST)

Rajasthan-13.67 Bihar-11.52 Orissa-9.76 Manipur-8.46 Meghalaya-7.58 Nagaland-4.9 Chatisgarh-4.05 Tripura-2.99

SC

ST

slide12

What Does SSA Provide for Bridging SC & ST Gaps

  • Free Text Books
  • 51 SC concentration and 75 ST concentration districts identified)
  • EGS & AIE centres being opened in tribal areas with relaxed norms (10-15 children).
    • Flexible schooling strategies for working migrant children
    • NGO’s involved in specific initiatives in urban slums and street children
slide13

What Does SSA Provide for Bridging SC & ST Gaps

  • District specific strategies for SC & ST children (15 lakh for innovation
  • Recruitment of local tribal teachers.
  • Development of specific modules for training of teachers in tribal areas (AP, Gujarat, Orissa)
  • Use of primers in tribal languages to help in better transition to State language
  • Priority in KGBV hostels, 25% SC and 29% ST girls
slide14

Goal – II contd../-

Bridging Social Category Gaps Muslim Minorities)

  • 9.97% (22 lakhs) muslim children (6-14) were out of school (SRI-IMRB 2005 Survey).
slide15

What Does SSA Provide for Bridging Muslim Minoritiy Gap

  • Free Text Books to Minority girls.
  • Text Books in Urdu
  • 88 districts with more than 20% muslim population focussed for Muslim minority under SSA.
  • 4624 PS, 1780 UPS and 31,702 EGS opened in these districts in 2006-07. 25.5% of total SSA allocation for these districts
  • Priority in KGBV Hostels, 529 KGBV Hostels in Muslim minority concentration districts
slide16

What Does SSA Provide for Bridging Minoritiy Gap

  • Muslim educational indicators being collected under DISE.
  • Supporting formal curriculum to children not attending regular schools through recognized / unrecognized Madarsas / Maktabs (13,176).
    • Teaching Learning Material Grants
    • Teacher Training
    • Free Text Books
    • Additional instructor to impart formal curriculum
slide17

What Does SSA Provide for Children With Special need

  • Support to CWSN, specific provision of Rs 1200 per child
  • Coverage through enrolment in schools(19.97 lakh), EGS/AIE centres(1.12 lakh) and home based education (77140).
  • 19.10 lakh CWSN (63%) enrolled in schools out of 23 lakh identified.
  • Provided assistive devices to 7.12 lakh CWSN
  • Teachers training to 50000 teachers
  • 6678 resource teachers appointed in 21 States.
  • Barrier free access ramps in the 5.02 lakh school
  • 620 NGOs involved in planning for IE, identification on CWSN, provision of aids and appliances, training on teachers etc.
  • Focus now on in-class attention and appropriate materials/ teaching methods for enrolling CWSN
slide18

Universal Retention by 2010

  • Dropout rates (pry.) have fallen by 11.3% pts. since 2001.
  • (2.3% drop between 1990-2000)
  • Reduction in girls > 15% pts.
  • Transition rates Pry. to U. Pry. improve from 74.15 (2003-04) to 83.36 (2005-06).

Dropout Rates

slide19

Primary Dropout Rates

Upto 10%

10 to 20%

20 to 30%

30 to 40%

> 40%

Goal III : Universal Retention by 2010

  • Drop out at National level 29.21% (SES 2004)
  • Dropout more than National Average is in
  • Assam, Bihar, Goa, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, and West Bengal
slide20

Dropout Gap

Upto 10% points

10-20% points

> 20% points.

Universal Retention – Scheduled Castes

  • Gap between general and SC dropout rate is 5.21%
  • Interstate variations
  • Goa-53.67 UP-18.54 T. Nadu-12.72 WB-11.28 Haryana-9.8 HP-8.79 Chandigarh-7.61 Punjab-5.24

Primary Dropout Gap

slide21

Primary Dropout Gap

Dropout Gap

Upto 10% points

10-20% points

> 20% points.

Universal Retention – Scheduled Tribes

  • Gap between general and ST dropout rate is 13.32%
  • Interstate variations
  • Maharashtra - 25.65 Andhra Pradesh - 22.09 Manipur - 19.82 Orissa - 19.28 Gujarat - 13.71 Tamil Nadu-10.73
slide22

What SSA Provides for Qualityimprovement

    • Provide additional teachers for PTR 1: 40 with minimum of two teachers
    • Grants – Teachers
    • Development of improved textbooks
    • Free textbooks for girls, SC, ST’s
    • Remedial teaching (for students needing greater attention )
    • Annual 20 day training of teachers
    • Decentralized academic support to schools/teachers through block & cluster level resource centers
    • Improved pupil assessment systems
    • School monitoring indicators
slide23

Appointment of Teachers

States with high PTR at pry

  • PTR at primary – 41:1
  • State have recruited 8.25 lakhs teachers against the target of 10.03 lakhs teachers.
  • States with high PTR at Pry Bihar (73:1),Jharkhand (53:1),UP (60:1), W. Bengal (47:1)
  • States that have to recruit more than 15000 teachers under SSA.

Bihar - 29218

West Bengal - 39486

Rajasthan – 33057

Jharkhand – 18480

Orissa- 16486

PTR more than 41:1

teacher training
Teacher Training
  • Target in 2006-07 was 34,05,615
  • Overall progress 87%
  • Less than 40% progress in Bihar, Sikkim, A & N Islands, Lakshadweep
  • Fresh NCERT guidelines for in service training (The Reflective Teacher)
  • Evaluation of teacher training underway (April, 2008)
  • SSA also supports induction training and training of untrained teachers
  • Focus on outcome oriented teacher training , to enable teachers to attain pre identified performance standards
  • Less than 40%
  • 40 – 60% progress
  • 60 - 80% progress
  • More than 80%
textbooks
Textbooks
  • Target in 06-07 was 6,68,77,585
  • Overall progress 96%
  • Issue of timeliness in distribution being addressed/monitored through MIEs/IPAI
  • Free textbook from state budget: Puducherry, Karnataka, T. N., Gujarat (up to class VII), etc.
  • Textbook revision recently completed , or currently underway in several states.
  • Progress > 90%
  • Progress < 90%
  • From State budget
assessment based learning improvement efforts

Assessment based learning improvement efforts

  • Quality Tracking in Kerala
  • KSQAO – Karnataka
  • ABL – Tamil Nadu
  • CLAPS – Andhra Pradesh
  • LATS – Orissa
  • GAP – Gujarat
  • Buniyad – Jharkhand
  • Read C. – Chhattisgarh
  • Read M. – Madhya Pradesh
  • LAP, LGP – Rajasthan
  • School Grading, Nayee Disha – UP
  • PLEP – Punjab
  • SSUU – West Bengal
  • Bidya Jyoti, LAP – Assam
  • School Monitoring - Uttarakhand
  • Learning Improvement Initiatives
  • Recent initiatives
remedial teaching
Remedial Teaching
  • Target in 2006-07 was 43,60,095
  • Overall progress 78%
  • Less than 40% progress in Andaman & Nicobar Is., Lakshadweep, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab and Sikkim
  • Several States running programmes with NGOs.
  • Less than 40%
  • 40 – 60% progress
  • 60 - 80% progress
  • More than 80%
slide28

Learning Achievement Surveys by NCERT-Class III

Language

Maths

0-50%

0-50%

50-60%

50-60%

60-70%

60-70%

70-80%

70-80%

slide29

Learning Achievement Surveys by NCERT- Class V

Maths

Language

0-50%

0-50%

50-60%

50-60%

60-70%

60-70%

70-80%

70-80%

sub dist academic support structures
Sub-dist. academic support structures
  • Over 90% operational in all states except in Assam and some UTs
  • Urban Resource Centers (URCs) being set up (SSA guidelines amended recently)
  • Evaluation study being commissioned.
  • Efforts to identify performance standards (ADEPTS) and emphasise primacy of the academic support role of BRCs and CRCs (e.g. through QMTs).
  • < 90% functional
  • BRCs
  • CRCs
slide31

Improving Quality

Attendance.

slide32
What Does SSA Provide for Community Involvement

Community involvement - must in SSA

  • Village Education Committees and School Management Committees given key role in SSA implementation.
  • 50% funds go to VEC/ SMC
  • VECs/Women’s groups monitor primary schools
  • Roles in implementation/monitoring assigned to Panchayati Raj Institutions.
  • More than 6000 NGOs involved in support to, and implementation of SSA interventions.
slide33

Focus in 2007-08

  • Outcomes Expected
  • Reduction in dropouts by at least 5% at primary level.
  • Reduction in gender gap by at least 5%.
  • Enhancing student and teacher attendance.
  • Focused programmes for improving levels of learning in Maths and Language in classes I to III.