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The United Front. 1937-1945. Objectives. Students will: Understand the role of the GMD and the CCP during the Japanese invasion of China. Marco Polo Bridge Incident. In 1937, Japanese and Nationalist Chinese forces clash at the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing Thousands of Chinese troops die

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Students will:

Understand the role of the GMD and the CCP during the Japanese invasion of China

marco polo bridge incident
Marco Polo Bridge Incident

In 1937, Japanese and Nationalist Chinese forces clash at the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing

Thousands of Chinese troops die

Japan uses the incident as justification for taking over Northern China

This time, however, Chiang announces a policy of resistance to the Japanese.

The Communists offer their support to the resistance effort

the battle for shanghai
The Battle for Shanghai

Chiang decides to attack Japanese forces in Shanghai

In the end, however, he is forced to retreat inland

Later, the Japanese attack Nanjing and carry out brutal atrocities in that city

This became known as the Rape of Nanjing

growth of the communist party
Growth of the Communist Party

The CCP grew significantly in terms of numbers during this period

It expanded its influence rapidly in the rural areas

Mao modified his extermination policies against the landlord class in favor of a more inclusive CCP

Stops confiscating property; instead, promotes a decrease in land rents

At the same time, it was able to frame Chinese communism as a new form of Chinese nationalism

did the japanese invasion strengthen the ccp
Did the Japanese invasion strengthen the CCP?

The Japanese invaders made their unintended contribution to the revolution by removing the Nationalist [GMD] army and bureaucracy from much of China, thereby permitting the Communists to organize the peasantry for both nationalist and social revolutionary ends.

Historian Maurice Meisner

yan an spirit
Yan’an Spirit

Hard work and plain living

Harsh conditions of the war gave the rise for self sufficiency

Young idealist converts to Communism congregated in Yan’an

The Yan’an Spirit becomes part of the myth of the CCP

rectification campaign
Rectification Campaign

Mao used the rectification campaign to consolidate his authority within the CCP

His opponents within the party, such as Wang Ming and Bo Gu, were publically forced to “confess” their errors through self-criticism

Even Mao loyalists such as Zhou Enlai were forced to publically express this past shortcomings

Thousands were killed as a result of these purges

Mao establishes a cult of personality around himself

His power increases and in 1945, he is named Chairman of the CCP

guerilla warfare
Guerilla Warfare

Zhu De and Lin Biao lead the CCP’s guerilla warfare attacks against the Japanese

Large scale CCP attacks, with a few exceptions such as the Hundred Regiment offensive, were the exception

Generally, organized cooperation with the GMD is minimal

In truth, however, most of the fighting against the Japanese was done by Chiang Kai Shek’s forces

chairman mao

In 1945, Mao is created Chairman of the CCP

role of ussr
Role of USSR

During the late 1930s, the USSR and Japan engage in clashes along the USSR/Manchurian border

The USSR provides financial military assistance to the GMD as a means of stopping Japanese aggression in the Far East

us involvement in china
US Involvement in China

During WWII, the US sends military support to help China defend itself against Japan

US General Joseph Stilwell was given charge of the Chinese Army

However, disagreements with Chiang led to his replacement with General Wedermeyer

In the US press, Stilwell publically denounced the GMD incompetency and corruption

claire chennault
Claire Chennault

Chennault was an American airman who helped train the Chinese air force during WWII

He also organized the Flying Tigers, a group of US airmen who volunteered to serve in China

dixie mission
Dixie Mission

In 1944, a group of American army officials decide to meet Mao in Yan’an. They establish a mission there to try to foster relations between the US and the CCP

They are impressed with the CCP’s energy and aggression compared to the GMD