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The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP)

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  1. Agricultural Research Service The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Joanne Holden David Haytowitz Pamela Pehrsson

  2. Intake Assessment of Dietary Components Supplement Intake Food Intake Component Values Component Intake

  3. National Nutrient Data BankNutrient Data Lab, BHNRC, ARS, USDA • The “reference” source for food composition data • Foundation for most other databases - National surveys - Therapeutic and research databases - Food frequency questionnaires - Product development, labeling, regulation • Internet access and CD-ROM

  4. Expansion of Food Composition Databases • Food and Nutrient Data Dietary System • (FNDDS) • 7000 “Recipe” Foods reported by Participants • ~62 Components • Yield & Nutrient Retention Factors • All Cells Filled Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) 7100 Foods “Short” Lists of Foods & Values Special Interest Databases Literature Analytical Reports Food Industry 3000 Foods FFQ

  5. Information Flow Analytical Data (NFNAP, FCL, TDS, etc.) Industry Data Data from Scientific Literature Label Information Database Imputations Formulations Recipes Algorithms Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys Special Releases (Vitamin K, Carotenoids Flavonoids, Choline, Fluoride) Standard Reference (SR) Nutritive Value of Foods (HG72)

  6. Database Applications • NHANES: USDA’s FNDDS • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) • 2005 Dietary Guidelines & MyPyramid.gov • Clinical research • GCRCs • CRCs • Epidemiological research

  7. NFNAP 1 • 1997 – 2005 • Designed to improve the quality and quantity of data in USDA food composition databases • Provide baseline nutrient data for important foods • Provide information on nutrient variability in foods • Targeted foods and nutrients • General and AI/AN population groups

  8. NFNAP 1: Principle Aims • Identify and prioritize Key Foods and nutrients • Evaluate quality of existing data • Develop sampling plans • Analyze samples under USDA sponsored contracts • Compile and disseminate data

  9. Aim 1: Key Foods and Critical Nutrients • Key Foods provide about 75% of the intake of a specific component or nutrient to the diet • Based on nutrients of public health significance • Consumption x concentration • Foods alone and as ingredients • Some foods are “key” for several nutrients • Approximately 675 foods • Ranking of Key Foods helps to set priorities for future research

  10. Aim 2: Evaluate Quality of Existing Data Existing data were evaluated against the following criteria: • Sampling plan • Sample handling • Number of samples • Analytical methodology • Analytical Quality Control (QC) -Existing data were frequently missing this information -Rating system applied to “emerging bioactive” components

  11. Aim 3: Develop Sampling Plans • Sample states selected proportional to the state population (US Census, 2000) • Sample counties dispersed over the 48 states • Sample counties selected proportional to the county population • Sample Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSA) selected proportional to CMSA population • 12 primary locations, multiples (24, 48), and random subsets of the primary 12 selected

  12. (Census 2000 and projected 2001 Census estimates)

  13. Aim 4: Analysis of Samples • Use qualified commercial analytical labs • For special nutrients, cooperative agreements with scientists at universities and government agencies • Vitamin K: Tufts Univ., Dr. Booth • Choline: Univ. of North Carolina, Dr. Zeisel • Fluoride: Univ. of Iowa, Dr. Levy • Proanthocyanidins: Univ. of Arkansas, Dr. Prior • Folate & Tocopherols: Univ. of Georgia, Dr. Eitenmiller • Fatty acids (including trans): Univ. of Maryland, Dr. Sampugna • Phytosterols, folate (5MTHF): VPI&SU, Dr. Phillips

  14. Aim 4: Analysis of Samples • Use of validated analytical methods • Quality Control • Certified reference materials • National Institute of Standards and Technology • American Association of Cereal Chemists • Others (Europe, China, etc.) • “In-house” materials developed • Cross validation of analyte concentrations

  15. NFNAP Infrastructure Primary Labs Commercial contracts Industry Collaborations NDL FALCC Texas Tech Univ. Wisconsin Statistical Consultants (NASS) Specialty Labs Cooperative agreements Sample Pickup Contract

  16. Aim 5: Data Compilation and Dissemination • Data reviewed by Quality Control Panel • Data migrated to NDL’s Nutrient Databank System (NDBS) • Data aggregated by NDL’s staff scientists using statistical algorithms developed as part of NDBS redesign • Released in SR • Released in Special Interest Tables

  17. Nutrient distribution and bias x x

  18. NFNAP 1: Significant Findings • Complete analytical profiles for foods! • Fat levels in ground beef show major changes • Fat in pizza doubled • 10 g vs. 5 g/100g in cheese pizza • β-carotene in broccoli lower • 361 μg/100 g compared to 778 μg/100 g in prelim. data • Vitamin C in MDII cultivar of pineapple doubled compared to older cultivars • Monounsaturated fatty acids lower in “jarred” spaghetti sauce

  19. Impact of DRI Changes Incorporated “Added” Vitamin E and “Added” vitamin B12 to database to address different units for DRI upper limits

  20. β-Carotene in Broccoli Car98 NFNAP Lab 1, Pass 1 Lab 1, Pass 2 Lab 2

  21. Selenium in Ground Beef

  22. Research and Methods Support • Supported development or enhancement of analytical methods for: • Folate: FCL • Choline: UNC • Flavonoids: FCL • Proanthocyanidins: U. ARK. • Phytosterols: VPI

  23. Research Infrastructure Support • Developed QC program for fluoride database • Previously unknown to dental community • Developed series of control composites for NFNAP QC program

  24. Research Findings: Folate • Demonstrated storage stability of folate • Supported development of method to measure added folate and 5-methyltetrahydratefolate • Updated database to reflect • Changes in enrichment standards • Adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFEs) in DRIs • Showed variability between labs

  25. Folate Variability between Labs for Different Food Items μg / 100 g

  26. Fluoride variability in municipal water Number of samples Mg/100 g ppm

  27. Bioactive Compounds

  28. Research Accomplishments: NFNAP1 • 36 peer-reviewed publications/conference proceedings • 23 oral presentations • 71 poster presentations • 12 database releases • 3 articles in Agricultural Research Magazine • Other media

  29. NFNAP 2 - 5 New Project Objectives • Institute a monitoring program for Key Foods and other foods • Conduct a comprehensive analysis of selected foods • Develop databases for high priority foods consumed by U.S. ethnic subpopulations • Databases for bioactive components • Develop validated database for ingredients in dietary supplements

  30. Institute Monitoring Plan • Designed to track changes in nutrient content of the food supply • Industry reformulations • Changes in nutrition labeling regulations • Trans fatty acids • New DRIs • Public health concerns • Obesity • Carbohydrates (e.g., added sugars, fiber)

  31. Institute Monitoring Plan • Identify foods and nutrients • Pickup of reformulated margarines in March 2006 • Pickup of reformulated cookies/crackers in April 2006 • Develop sampling plan • Analysis of limited nutrients in each food • Statistical Assessment of differences

  32. Conduct Comprehensive Analysis of Selected Foods • Foods not analyzed in first phase of NFNAP • Poultry products • Rotisserie chicken (analyzed in FY2005) • Fast Food products (1st sampling 2/6/06) • Fresh/frozen chicken/turkey • FDA’s top 20 seafood, fruits, vegetables for nutrition labeling

  33. Ethnic Foods • Hispanic/Latino • African American • Asian/Pacific Islanders • Native Americans/Alaskan Natives

  34. Ethnic Foods • Increased rates of diet related diseases • Obesity • CV disease • Diabetes • Cancer • Use of traditional foods • USDA support from 2006

  35. Hispanic/Latino Foods • Analyzed ~30 foods under NFNAP 1 • Diverse population • Mexican • Cuban • Puerto Rican • Central/South America • Varying degrees of acculturation • Working with NCI to develop food priorities • Full profile of nutrients to be analyzed

  36. Bioactive Compounds: Future Research • Vitamin D • Collaboration with food industry (e.g. Coca Cola, National Dairy Council), universities, and government incl. FCL • Validation of methods of analysis • Development of control materials • Identify foods and develop sampling plans • Trans fatty acids - reformulations • N-3 fatty acids database • Conjugated linoleic acid? • Glucosinolates/isothiocyanates?

  37. Cost of Analyses • Sample pickup • ~$1,000 per food (12 pickup locations) • Sample preparation • ~$3,500 per food (4 composites) • Analyses • ~$1,500 per sample • ~$6,000 per food (4 composites)

  38. Gaps in Knowledge • Lack of data for restaurant foods • Limited nutrient profiles for some products • Magnitude of variability for some foods and nutrients unknown • Labs’ analytical expertise for some components • Limits of NIST Standard Reference Materials and QC materials

  39. Conclusions • Original analytical data are an essential part of USDA’s food composition databases • Since the food supply is dynamic continuous support is required • Nationwide sampling is critical • New methods, new priorities, new protocols