The grapes of wrath a case study on post weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome
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The Grapes of Wrath: A Case Study on Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome. Jennifer Richter, Laura Talaga, Courtney Low, Vi Nguyen , Morgan Tannenbaum, Erin Burton. Signs of a Healthy Piglet. Active & alert, with bright eyes and curious. Body temperature of 102.5° F Sleek haircoat

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The grapes of wrath a case study on post weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome

The Grapes of Wrath:A Case Study on Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome

Jennifer Richter, Laura Talaga, Courtney Low,

Vi Nguyen , Morgan Tannenbaum, Erin Burton


Signs of a healthy piglet
Signs of a Healthy Piglet

  • Active & alert, with bright eyes and curious.

  • Body temperature of 102.5° F

  • Sleek haircoat

  • Tightly curled tails

  • Clean and dry

  • Strong appetite &

    weight gain


Healthy piglet weaning
Healthy Piglet Weaning

  • Average Wean Age: 20-22 days

  • Average Wean Weight: 13-14 lbs

  • Growth during 1st week post weaning:

    • Pigs that grow 0.5 lb per day the 1st week of weaning were 17 lbs heavier at market


Feeding post weaning piglets
Feeding Post Weaning Piglets

  • First 7 days post weaning: critical period

  • Important to remember extreme nutritional changes occur at weaning!

  • Creep feeding recommended

    • Stimulates pig to eat (appetite) & helps find feed

    • Scatter 1lb feed per 30 heads on mat 4-6x daily

  • Gruel Feeding

    • Pigs having trouble starting

      on dry feed

      (water + commercial feed)


Managing healthy post weaning piglets
Managing Healthy Post Weaning Piglets

  • Water intake is critical

    • 1 nipple for 10 pigs or 1 bowl/trough per 20 pigs

    • Height of nipple: shoulder height of smallest piglet

  • Zone Heating

    • provides 82 0 F

    • Pigs lay 1 ½ “deep” =

      lie touching each other w/

      heads on neighbors flank


Identifying sick piglets careful observation is the key
Identifying SICK piglets: careful observation is the key

Signs to look for:

  • Rough hair coat or fuzzy appearance

  • Sucked in flanks. Obvious empty belly.

  • Depressed or lethargic. Head down or droopy. Ears laid back. Laying along the gate.

  • Not active or competing. Feed refusal.

  • Lameness. Piling.

  • Temperature > 102°F (38.8°C)




Our case
Our Case post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

  • Homer Zuckerman’s Famous Pig Farm

  • Reports in the last 2 months:

    • 14 emaciated

    • 6 dead

  • Age range: 3-6 months old


Clinical signs
Clinical Signs post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

  • Wasting

  • Enlarged lymph nodes (inguinal)

  • Ill thrift

  • Rough hair coat

  • Pale skin

  • Dyspnea

  • Icterus

  • Diarrhea


DDx post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

  • PMWS

    Post Weaning Multi-systemic Wasting Syndrome

  • PRRS

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

  • Swine Influenza

  • Mycoplasma

  • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)


PMWS and related PCVAD’s post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

  • PMWS aka Severe Systemic Porcine Circovirus 2 infection

  • One of many PCV2 associated diseases

  • PCVADS

Granulomatous enteritis

Reproductive failure

Porcine respiratory disease complex

Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy


PMWS Effects post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

Pregnant sows in

1st or 2nd trimester

Post weaning piglets 4-14 weeks


Transmission post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

  • Direct: feces, respiratory secretions, urine.

  • Fecal-oral or oro-nasal route.

  • Hematogenous dissemination

  • Ubiquitous in swine herds worldwide:

    • Natural protection; early antigen exposure

    • Most infections subclinical

      • only 10-30% clinical

    • Maternal antibody protection

    • to piglets from exposed sows


  • Clinical Signs post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Weight loss/muscle wasting,dyspnea, enlarged lymph nodes, jaundice, pallor and ill thrift


    Sows: post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.Abortion or fetal resorption,

    SMEDI


    Pmws complex and multi factorial dz
    PMWS: complex and multi-factorial Dz post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Pathogenesis and cellular tropisms remain unknown

      • Replication in monocytic cell lines = granulomatous lesions ???

    • PCV2 is necessary, but co-factors are more significant in development of PMWS.


    Cofactors
    COFACTORS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    1. Co-infections

    • + PPV

    • + PRRS

    • + Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

      2. Management Factors:

      Co-mingling, diet change, pathogen exposure and separation of piglets from sows

    • Challenge and suppress pig’s immune system

      3. Immunostimulation (?):

    • Concurrent vax + PVC2 exposure = enhanced severity of clinical disease


    Gross pathologic findings of PMWS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Kidney and liver: variable; diffusely scattered white foci


    Gross pathologic findings of pmws
    Gross pathologic findings of PMWS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Lung- non-collapsable and palpably firm


    Gross pathologic findings of pmws1
    Gross pathologic findings of PMWS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Lymph node- enlarged; granulomatous

    infiltrates


    Histopathologic findings of pmws
    Histopathologic post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well. findings of PMWS

    Lungs: interstitial pneumonia with lymphohistiocytic infiltrate

    Lymph node: multinucleated giant cells, histiocytic infiltrates; lymphoid cell depletion


    Histopathologic findings of pmws1
    Histopathologic post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well. findings of PMWS

    “The Grapes of Wrath”- characteristic botryoid inclusion bodies in lymph nodes, tonsils and Peyer’s patches


    Diagnosis of pmws
    Diagnosis of PMWS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • 1) Clinical signs in weaned pigs

      • wasting and dyspnea.

    • 2) Gross- or histo- pathological findings

      • interstitial pneumonia

      • granulomatous lesions,

      • botryoid inclusion bodies

      • lympho-histiocytic infiltrates

    • 3) Demonstration of the presence of PCV2 in the lesions

      • Immunohistochemistry

      • In-situ hybridization


    Control of pmws
    Control of PMWS post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Good management practices

      • Semen from insemination centers vs. on-farm

    • Control of co-infections

      • PRRS

      • Parvo

    • PCV2 vaccines


    Vaccines
    Vaccines post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • IntervetCircumvent™ PCV (US and Canada)

      • Healthy pigs 3 weeks and older

      • 2 IM injections 3 weeks apart

    • Fort Dodge Suvaxyn PCV2® One Dose (US)

      • PCV1-2 Chimera

      • Healthy pigs 4 weeks and older

      • 1 single dose IM

    • BoehringerIngleheimIngelvac® CircoFLEX™ (US and Canada)

      • Healthy pigs 3 weeks and older

      • 1 singe dose IM

    • MerialCircovac® (Europe and Canada)

      • Primary Vaccination

        • 2 injections 3-4 weeks apart at least 2 weeks before mating

      • Revaccination

        • 1 injection at each gestation at least 2-4 weeks before farrowing

      • Healthy female breeding age pigs


    Benefits of vaccination
    Benefits of vaccination post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Reduced mortality rate and morbidity

      • Decreased mortality before weaning after vaccination of sows

      • Decreased mortality in fourth month of life after vaccination of piglets

    • Reduced PCV2 viremia and viral load

    • Reduction in clinical signs and co-infections associated with PMWS

    • Improved productivity

      • Greater average daily weight gain

      • Greater carcass weight at slaughter


    Herd management
    Herd Management post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • The basic principle of herd management with pigs is to Reduce STRESS!

      • Handle with care, gentleness and patience

      • Check herd daily on a strict schedule

      • Walk though pens once a day

      • ID sick pigs right away and move them to a separate pen


    Herd management options
    Herd Management Options post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • All In/ All Out

    • Continuous Flow


    All in all out
    All In/ All Out post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Pigs of the same size or age are housed together in order to decrease the opportunity for diseases to spread


    Ai ao
    AI/ AO post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Advantages

    Disadvantages

    • Disease spread is easier to contain

    • Pigs are less stressed when the remain within familiar social groups

    • Cleaning & disinfecting achievable between groups

    • Must have adequate space

    • Space is less efficiently allocated


    Continuous flow
    Continuous Flow post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Animals are added to the group as the are old enough or large enough

    • These animal may be in different stages of development


    Continuous flow1
    Continuous Flow post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Advantages

    Disadvantages

    • Space is used efficiently

    • Pigs of various immunocompetence are placed together

    • Frequent social group changes

    • Cleaning & Disinfecting between groups is not feasible


    Special thanks to
    Special thanks to: post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    Dr Gyimah

    Dr Castillo

    Dr Wallace


    References
    References post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • Early Pig Care Manual. PIC. Hendersonville, TN. 2009

    • Harding JCS, Clark EG. Recognizing and diagnosing PostweaningMultisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). Swine health and production. Vol. 5, number 5.

    • http://www.ipic.iastate.edu/publications/720.RaisingHealthyPigs.pdf

    • http://www.grobernutrition.com/piglet/porlet/

    • http://www.goats4h.com/Pigs.html

    • http://cal.vet.upenn.edu. Swine Production. 15 March, 2011.

    • http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/swine/fac/general/health.html

    • “Chapter 1: Management practices and animal husbandry.” Swine Care Handbook. 2002. 15 March 2011.

    • http://www.antwifarms.com/docs/swinecarehandbook.pdf

    • http://www.vin.com/members/cms/document/default.aspx?objecttypeid=2&template=articleview&redirect=1&objectid=1665126

    • http://www.vin.com/members/cms/document/default.aspx?objecttypeid=2&template=articleview&redirect=1&objectid=1733985

    • http://vetmed.iastate.edu/research/labs/pcv2/control-pcv2-associated-disease


    References1
    References post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.

    • http://www.thepigsite.com/pigjournal/articles/1630/porcine-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome-pmws-a-review

  • Krokowka S, Ellis JA, Meehan B, Kennedy S, McNeilly and Allan G. Viral Wasting Syndrome of Swine: Experimental Reproduction of PMWS in Gnotobiotic Swine by Coinfection with PCV2 and PPV. SAGE Journals online.

    • http: //vet.sagepub.com/content/37/3/245.full

  • "ScienceDirect - Preventive Veterinary Medicine : Risk factors for porcine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 149 French farrow-to-finish herds." ScienceDirect - Home . N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TBK-49M6RNP-2&_user=4442476&_coverDate=

    • http://www.aasp.org/shap/issues/v5n5/index.html

  • Tucker AW. Porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS): a review. The Pig Journal. April 2006.


  • Questions
    Questions? post wean but bellies are round indicating that pigs are on feed and doing well.


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