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BBPP1103. Chapter 7 motivation. Introduction. William (2000) : Motivation consists of powers that are able to move , direct and enable a person to be diligent in their effort to achieve goals. It is different from performance.

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  • Chapter 7

  • motivation


William (2000) : Motivation consists of powers that are able to move , direct and enable a person to be diligent in their effort to achieve goals.

It is different from performance.

Performance = motivation x ability x situational constraints

Classical model and scientific management
Classical model and scientific management

  • Rue et al (2000) in his classical motivation model , stated that employees can be motivated by money.

  • Scientific management suggests beyond that…not just money…

Motivation approach
Motivation approach

  • 1.Need-based approach

    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

    • Two-factor model

    • Achievement of needs model

  • 2.Process-based model

    • Expectancy process

    • Equity model

    • Goal-setting model

    • Reinforcement model

Need based approach
Need-based approach :

  • 1.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  • Most famous model

  • An individual has five basic needs which are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.

  • According to Maslow, when a particular need has been fulfilled, it will no longer motivate the behavior of employees.

  • However, hierarchy level differs between individuals in different cultural environment.

2.Two factor model -Accepted widely in the area of management

  • This model relates between job satisfaction with productivity.

  • Two factors are motivation factors and hygiene factors

  • Both factors of motivation and hygiene need to exist together in creating true motivation

  • Employees will feel dissatisfied if they believe that their work place is not safe, but if the condition of the work place is improved, employees may not necessarily become satisfied.

  • This approach shows that motivation comes from the individual himself.

3 achievement of needs model
3.Achievement of needs model management

  • Developed by David Mc Clelland

  • Focus on three important needs : achievement, affiliation and power

  • Need for achievement is the desire to perform something much better and more effectively than before. The amount of motivation of a person depends on factors like childhood, personal experience, education and type of organization joined.

  • Needs for affiliation relates to desire to control , obtaining power and the ability to influence others.

  • Needs for social acceptance is the desire of creating friendly relationship.

  • In this approach, when strength towards these needs had been developed, it will be able to motivate the behavior of individuals.

Process based approaches
Process-based approaches management

  • 1. Expectancy model

  • Based on the idea that employee believes in the association between effort, performance and result as the consequences of the value and performance that they had fixed on the result.

  • The level of motivation depends on expectancy, instrumentality and valence.

  • To increase the expectancy of employee that hard work and effort will bring excellent performance.

  • 2. equity model management

  • Proposed by Stacey Adams

  • Based on idea that people want to be treated equally. Inequality exist when an employee regards that his/her inputs or contribution receive less salary, benefits or recognitions compared to others

  • To reduce inequality :- employee might reduce or increase input

  • Refer pg. 126/270

  • 3. goal-setting model management

  • Motivation model that acts by increasing the efficiency and effectiveness by emphasizing specifically on the outcomes expected.

  • An important aspect in this model is the involvement of employees in the process of goal-setting.

  • 4. Reinforcement model management

  • Pioneered by B.F Skinner

  • The core of this theory is the assumption that the outcomes or consequences of a person’s behavior at present will affect his or her behavior in the future.

  • 4 types of reinforcement : positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and elimination

  • Refer pg. 273