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Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi and Future Land Use Planning Mahmoud Abdelfattah Soil Scientist Environment Agency - Abu Dhab PowerPoint Presentation
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Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi and Future Land Use Planning Mahmoud Abdelfattah Soil Scientist Environment Agency - Abu Dhab
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  1. Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi and Future Land Use Planning Mahmoud Abdelfattah Soil Scientist Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi 2011 National Cooperative Soil Survey National Conference Asheville, North Carolina May 22-26, 2011 “Soil Survey — Interpreting the Inventory in a Digital World”

  2. Highlights • Introduction – Abu Dhabi, UAE and GCC • Soil Survey of the Coastal area • Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi (Phase 1 - Extensive Survey) • Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi (Phase 2 - Intensive Survey) • Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates • Innovations • Publications

  3. UAE and Abu Dhabi Facts: UAE is a Federation of 7 Emirates (83,000 km2) (a little smaller than NC) Abu Dhabi (86% of the total area) Other Emirates are:Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al Quwain, Ras al Khaima, and Fujairah

  4. Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi coastal area, 2002-2004 • Scale 1:50.000 • Extends for 400km with 7-10km width • Total observations 775 sites • 13 Soil types identified at family level • 122 soil samples analyzed, complete and partial • Soil map with a total area of 5.4% of Abu Dhabi Emirate

  5. Some features of the Coastline of Abu Dhabi Hexagonal pattern Salt crust at the surface Upturned crust Uplifted soil surface by salt pillars

  6. Soils identified in the coastal area of Abu Dhabi Gypsic Haplosalids Leptic Haplogypsids Gypsic Aquisalids Typic Haplosalids Typic Aquisalids Typic Torriorthents Typic Petrocalcids Typic Torripsamments

  7. Full survey for the entire Abu Dhabi Emirate in two phases 2005-2009

  8. Objectives • To implement a comprehensive Soil Survey on 2 phases: • Phase I of scale 1:100 000 – Extensive Survey • Phase II of scale 1:25 000 – Intensive Survey • Preparation of soil and thematic map with different scale • Development of Abu Dhabi Soil Information System (ADSIS) • Soil policy guideline for future land use planning • Capacity building

  9. Extensive Survey Protocols • Geographic distribution – Entire Abu Dhabi Emirate (about the size of SC) • Exclusions: offshore Islands, urban, industrial and non-accessible areas, already surveyed coastal area – 55,000 km2) • Fourth Order USDA-NRCS specifications modified to fit local conditions • Soil taxonomy level – soil family and phases of families • Soil map – Great group and soil subgroup level

  10. Extensive Survey Protocols • Map unit components - soil families and their phases • Thematic maps (20) covering aspects like resources, uses and environmental conditions • ADSIS - Abu Dhabi Soil Information System (ADSIS) • Soil sampling archive and monoliths

  11. Field Action Plan • 22,800 observations (auger holes and sand spear) • Typical profiles (pits) (500) depth of exploration (2 meters) • Deep drilling (300) depth of 10m • Physical parameters: infiltration rate, permeability, penetration resistance, bulk density

  12. Laboratory Analyses • Complete Analyses – 400 (60 parameters) • including Physical, chemical, engineering, mineralogical (XRD), micromorphological (Thin sections), elemental analyses (XRF) • Partial Analyses – 900 (4 parameters) Notes (1) all soil analyses were performed in the UAEU lab that is fully equipped for all soil related analyses (2) 5% QA/QC samples were analyzed at USDA and Univ of WA labs

  13. Preliminary Working Maps Unsupervised and supervised clas Transects Soil Landscape relationship • Field Soil Scientists were recruited from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sudan, Egypt • Several of them were influenced by the USA soil survey early in 1980's • The "Soil Management Support Services" (SMSS) was sponsored by USAID (United States Agency for International Development). • USA Soil Scientists, HariEswaran, John Witty, Terry Cook and others provided training to them in Soil Taxonomy and soil survey procedures.

  14. Soil Mapping Strategy Sweihan Sila Ghayathi Al Fathyia Al Qua’a Liwa Oct 2006 - Feb 2007 Jun – Sep 2007 Feb - Mar Mar - Apr Apr - Jun

  15. Deep Drilling – 10m 600 observation sites

  16. Fieldwork implementation Typical profile program - Extensive Survey 300 pits - Intensive survey 500 pits

  17. Soil Taxonomy – Abu Dhabi Emirate 2 Orders and 5 Suborders • Aridisols (14%) • Calcids • Gypsids • Salids • Entisols (82%) • Psamments • Orthents

  18. Soil Taxonomy – Abu Dhabi Emirate 9 Great Groups • Haplocalcids • Petrocalcids • Calcigypsids • Haplogypsids • Petrogypsids • Aquisalids • Haplosalids • Torriorthents • Torripsamments 62 Soil Series were identified - extensive

  19. Soil Maps • 1:500,000 (One A0 sheet – satellite imagery and colored) • 1:100,000 (29 A1 sheets – satellite imagery) • 1:100,000 (113 A4 sheets – satellite imagery and colored)

  20. Extensive survey – thematic maps • Potential of carbonate sources • Potential of sweet soil sources • Potential of anhydrite sources • Land degradation • Rangeland suitability • Wildlife habitat suitability • Forestry suitability • Landfill (trench) suitability • Landfill (area) suitability • Suitability for agriculture • Salinity in the 0 to 50cm • Salinity in the 50-100cm • Depth to water table • Depth to hardpan • Potential of gypsum sources • Potential of gravel sources • Potential of clay sources • Potential of sand sources

  21. Suitability for irrigated agriculture Using FAO LE Framework 1976 (S1, S2, S3, N1, and N2 Hardpan, water table, salinity, gypsum, relief, and slope

  22. Land Degradation Shows categories of land degradation (none, slight, moderate, high) based on factors limiting plant growth Hardpan, water table, salinity, surface lag, texture, landfill, quarrying

  23. Phase 2 Intensive Survey (1:25000) 400,000 ha Almost the size of Buncombe and Madison Counties, NC

  24. Phase 2 areas - Selection criteria 1. Areas most suitable for irrigated agriculture

  25. Phase 2 Areas - Selection criteria 2. Availability of water resources

  26. Phase 2 areas - Selection criteria 3. Accessibility to roads, cities and infrastructure 4. Strategic issues Based on these criteria, 400000 ha were selected in 4 different locations

  27. Intensive survey – selected areas Sila 29,000ha Ghayathi 103,000ha Abu Dhabi/Al Ain 150,000ha Madinat Zayed 119,000ha

  28. PHASE 2 PROTOCOLS • 2nd Order Soil Survey, USDA • Scale 1:25,000 • Grid survey: 350m x 350m. • 33,000 shovel/auger sites were dug, described & classified • Already used areas (i.e., farms, forestry, urban) excluded • Deep Drilling (600 for 5m and 100 for 10m) • Laboratory analyses (300 complete and 400 partial)

  29. Soil Maps – Intensive Survey As Silaa Ghayyathi Madinat Zayed Al Ain

  30. Suitability for irrigated agriculture As Silaa Ghayyathi Al Ain Madinat Zayed

  31. Other evaluations • Subsurface salinity (50-100cm) • Suitability for wildlife habitat • Building site sources • Clay sources • Topsoil sources • Shallow excavations • Local roads and streets • Sanitary facilities • Surface salinity map (0-50cm) • Potential agricultural sources • Potential gypsum sources • Potential sand soils sources • potential carbonate sources • potential gravel sources • Potential of anhydrite sources • Suitability for roadfill • Suitability for lawns & landscaping

  32. Abu Dhabi Soil Information System (ADSIS) Available online at www.adsis.ae

  33. ADSIS Web Interface HydroManager (Web Interface - Presentation) Interpreted Results Interpreted Results AWRIS ADSIS Integration between Soil and Water Databases

  34. Capacity Building Office and on-the-job training

  35. Soil Monoliths - Key Abu Dhabi Soils Soil Samples Archive - (2300 samples)

  36. USDA Quality Assurance of Survey Results • Checking the adequacy of project results • Visit to soil laboratory facility • Conducting QA/QC field visits • Discussions with relevant staff • Recommend/suggest modifications • Suggest way forward after project completion

  37. Innovations – Anhydrite and Soil Taxonomy Shahid, S. A. M. A. Abdelfattah and Michael A. Wilson. 2007. A unique anhydrite soil in the Coastal Sabkha of Abu Dhabi Emirate United Arab Emirates. Soil Survey Horizons 48(4):75-79 Abdelfattah, M. A., S. A. Shahid and M. A. Wilson. 2008. Characterization of Anhydrite soils discovered in the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Joint Annual Meeting of the GSA-ASA-CSSA-SSSA-GCAGS-GCSSEPM, Oct. 5-9, 2008, Houston, Texas, USA. Shahid, S. A, M. Abdelfattah, A. K. El-Saiy and K. A. Mufti. 2009. Commercial value assessment of newly discovered anhydrite soil in the Coastal Lands of Abu Dhabi Emirate. European Journal of Scientific Research, 29 (1): 36-46.

  38. Sand spear technology…

  39. Soil Survey for the Northern Emirates June 2010- May 2012

  40. Scope of Work Total observations – 10,000 9000 auger holes - sand dunes 1000 geoprobe sites - gravel areas Typical profiles to 200 cm depth 200 Deep drilling (10 meters) 150 Infiltration/permeability 200 Soil analyses (Complete ~ 60 parameters) 250 Quality Assurance (USDA) 13 Soil analyses (partial ~ 2-3 parameters) 700 وزارة البيئة والمياه

  41. Publications - in Progress Keys to Abu Dhabi Soils - in collaboration with the USDA Soil Atlas of Abu Dhabi Soils A2 Size (42 x 59.4cm) for Public

  42. THANK YOU Acknowledgment Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) GRM International , Australia United States Department of Agriculture(USDA)