With a partner near you…. On a sheet of paper in your notes, come up with what you think defines a mineral. Make a list of properties. What makes a mineral different from a rock?. What is a Mineral?. What is a mineral?. Solid Not liquid, gas, or plasma. What is a mineral?.
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With a partner near you… • On a sheet of paper in your notes, come up with what you think defines a mineral. Make a list of properties. • What makes a mineral different from a rock?
What is a mineral? • Solid • Not liquid, gas, or plasma
What is a mineral? • Naturally-occurring • Not man-made
What is a mineral? • Inorganic • Never alive
What is a mineral? • Fixed chemical composition: an element or a compound
What is a mineral? • Crystal structure: atoms or molecules in an orderly pattern
Examples of minerals Halite (rock salt) Mica Quartz
Most minerals are compounds • Quartz: silicon and oxygen • SiO2 • Most abundant in earth’s crust • Halite: sodium and chloride • NaCl
Native Minerals • Made up of single elements Gold Copper Sulfur Silver
Important Mineral Facts… • There are more than 2,000 kinds of minerals, but fewer than 20 are common minerals that form rock • 10 minerals make up 90% of the earth’s crust • Ex. Quartz, feldspar, mica, calcite
2 Main Groups of Minerals • Silicates • Non-Silicates
Silicates • They contain atoms of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O). • Forms a tetrahedron (see drawing) • Many contain one or more kind of atom • Ex. Feldspar – silicon and oxygen with potassium • SiO2 - Quartz • *96% of the crust is made of silicates
Non-silicates • 6 Groups
#1 Native Elements • One type of atom
#2 Halides • K, Na, or Ca cation, with a Cl or F anion Halite (NaCl)
#3 Sulfides • Contains S atom Pyrite (FeS2)
#4 Carbonates • Contains CO3 as part of the compound
#5 Sulfates • Contains SO4 as part of the compound Gypsum (CaSO42H2O)
Gypsum Caves • Largest Crystals in the World are found in Northern Mexico in the Cave of Crystals Cave of Crystals Video
Oxides • Contains O atom except for silicates, carbonates, and sulfates. Hematite (Fe2O3)