Download
licence fees n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Licence Fees PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Licence Fees

Licence Fees

253 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Licence Fees

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Licence Fees 23 August 1851: 30 shillings per month, payable in advance. Same fee for all, successful digger or not. Geelong Advertiser 1851: ‘insult to common sense’ , ‘juggernaut tax to crush the poor’ Many were angered by the tax and thought that the exorbitant high fee discriminated against the poor. Furthermore police used aggressive and even violent tactics to ensure payment: chaining diggers to logs

  2. Licence Fees December, 1851: Fee doubled to 3 pounds per month. Unskilled labourer earned about £4 per month/wealthy squatters paid £10 a year for livestock grazing across 1000s of acres. Funds were indeed needed to address the infrastructural needs of such a massive pop. Influx. An export duty (tax) per ounce on all gold exported would have been fairer (only successful diggers would pay)

  3. Licence Fees However the Legislative Council was dominated by squatters. Squatters had no desire to channel government funds into the goldfields nor to encourage the goldfield industry (loss of labour and rise of a new class). Squatters reasoning: high monthly fee would finance law and order, services for differs and deter excessive migration to the goldfields. Licences did not deter the expansion of gold-seeking in Victoria.

  4. Licence Fees There was much animosity over the fees: Governor La Trobe was named ‘our Victorian Czar’ All but two of Melbourne’s police force quit before 1851. Numbers replenished with ex-convict and Aborigine recruits Ex-convicts enforced the licence system with exploitative brutality. Aborigines as inspectors was seen as insulting to many diggers.

  5. Licence Fees Gold Commissioners and Assistant Commissioners duties: issue licences, apprehend defaulters, guard revenue from fees and gold for escort to Melb., settle disputes and maintain order. Mostly inexperienced and incompetent; others corrupt Largely young and ‘snobbish’ William Howitt: ‘incompetent, empty-headed boys’ William Strut: ‘an absurd mistake to employ native constables who could not read printed or written instructions’.

  6. Licence Fees Licence hunts conducted several times a day 1852: Police responsible for convictions received half from fines. Police corruption rife: blackmail, perjury, bribes and protection money 1851 to mid-1853: goldfields largely peaceful due to the abundance of gold As gold became less-plentiful the challenge to pay the licence fees became more difficult Lack of decent roads and other services indicated to bitter and resentful diggers that their fees were not being invested into the goldfields

  7. Radical Visions Beyond licence fee issues many diggers desired political representation and the right to buy land 1854 Caroline Chisholm: ‘The lands must be unlocked!’ Many immigrant miners held radical political views Chartists (political reformers): the right of every man to vote, no property qualifications for parliamentary candidates, salaries for all members of parliament, equal electoral districts, the secret ballot.

  8. Resistance July 1853: Demonstrations in Bendigo and petition 40 feet long focusing on licences fees and police mistreatment Demand to have the fee reduced from 30s to 10s a month and all armed forces withdrawn La Trobe increase troop numbers in Bendigo however they could not arrest 12,000 protestors. Protestors wore red strips on their hats hence the Red Ribbon Movement Fee was reduced significantly

  9. Reforms New fee structure: £1: one month , £2: three, £4: six, £8: twelve Diggers with an annual licence and resided in the colony for longer the six months allowed to vote Aimed at a minority of miners. Most did not buy annual licences nor could they afford. Limited franchise to a minority Oct-Nov Ballarat meetings where diggers demanded the vote, fairer taxation and for the opportunity to purchase land (land around the goldfields up for purchase but prices drastically inflated and bought up by squatters and speculators).

  10. Leadership Changes May 1854 La Trobe resigned as Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria He was widely unpopular with local miners and sympathetic newspapers like the Argus Perceived as a tool/lackey of the ‘squattocracy’ and other wealthy conservatives. La Trobe’s replacement Sir Charles Hotham was initially seen favourably. However he quickly increased and intensified licence hunts

  11. Eureka Rebellion Oct 7, 1854 two drunk miners Scobie and Martin approached The Eureka hotel owned by James Bentley. Hotel frequented by police and goldfield officials Men refused entry. Martin left but Scobie stayed to argue and demand entry. Bently and Scobie got into an argument which ended with Scobie being found kicked to death Bentley, his wife and two friends were arrested . Magistrate: business associate of Bentley . Despite overwhelming evidence all were acquitted of murder.

  12. Eureka Rebellion Meeting of 5,000 diggers demanding re-trial. With the attendance of the police, violence erupted ending with the burning down of the hotel. Three diggers arrested for fire. Re-trial ordered for Bentley et al while an inquiry into officials was launched by Hotham. 11 Nov 1854: Monster Meeting (11,000) at Bakery Hill demanded vote, political representation and abolition of licence. Formed Ballarat Reform League. However when the three diggers were sentenced to three years hard-labour re-ignited anger on the goldfields.

  13. Eureka Rebellion Ballarat Reform League approached Hotham with their demands and the release of the three convicted miners. Hotham agreed to consider the earlier terms but refused to release the convicted arsonists. Another monster meeting reported the Governor’s response. The meeting decided that they would all burn their licences , they would raise their new flag and three leaders elected: Peter Lalor (Ire), RafaelloCarboni (Ita), Frederick Vern (Ger)

  14. Eureka Rebellion Commissioner Rede ordered another licence hunt the next day in the largely Irish area of diggings. Resentment and anger was at an all-time high Diggers responded with verbal abuse and stones thrown at police. Eight were arrested and Rede read the Riot Act. Extra troops were requested from Melbourne. Miners met again at Bakery Hill and Lalor is elected commander-in-chief. Formed armed volunteer force to defend diggers

  15. Quotes Rede: ‘The licence [protest] is a mere cloak to cover a democratic revolution’ (Redepercieves democratic revolution to dangerous and wrong). ‘…the future welfare of this colony depends on the crushing of this movement’ Lalor: ‘I called for volunteers to come forward…’ ‘I mounted the stump and proclaimed ‘Liberty’.’ Carboni: ‘united people will, under all circumstances, defend and protect them’

  16. Eureka Rebellion Dec 1, 1854 (Fri): Approx 1,000 men begin building of a rough stockade Late Saturday night: Many diggers left stockade, many believing that a attack would not happen on the day of the Sabbath. 150 remained 3am approach of several hundred troops and police Taken by surprise miners defeated less than 20mins 14 killed, 8 more died from wounds, 12 injured and 100 taken prisoner Captain Wise and five privates dead

  17. Eureka Rebellion The Eureka flag was pulled down, tents set alight, several wounded diggers were bayoneted or shot and many miners not involved were arrested Lalor escaped despite being wounded and having his arm amputated. Government offered £200 for Lalor, £200 for editor of the Digger’s Advocate and £500 for Vern (considered the leader of the revolt) Many knew where the men were but no one claimed the rewards

  18. Impact of Eureka Two days later Sir Robert Nickel and Colonel Edward Macarthur arrived to take command of the security forces on the Ballarat goldfields. They abolished licence hunts Hotham: ‘I was prepared to make every effort to avoid bloodshed [until] a riot was rapidly growing into a revolution’ Hotham feared the rise of secret revolutionary groups amongst different immigrant populations – French, German , American and ‘British Chartist here to met not to dig gold but to agitate, overturn the Government and seize the Land.’ Lalor: ‘[The] British Government can never bring forth a measure of reform without having first prepared a font of human blood…’ / ‘the result has been deplorable’

  19. Impact of Eureka A Royal Commission was appointed by Hotham in November 1855. It recommended a general amnesty for all diggers arrested; Hotham refused bringing animosity and widespread discredit amongst the people. Popular sentiment on the goldfields and in the major cities of Melbourne and Geelong were with the people. Many petitions sought his recall.

  20. Impact of Eureka All accused were acquitted. The Herald very critical: The Government must now in turn prepare to stand its trial…at the bar of public opinion” 27 March 1855 the Commission finds: The licence to be replaced by an export duty of 2 shillings and 6 pence per ounce of gold. Abolition of goldfields commissioners, replaced by local courts (rule on mining and working conditions) Withdrawal of 2/3 of goldfield administration and ½ of police. The replacement of licence with a ‘miner’s right’ costing £1 per year entitling legal ownership of claim and the right to vote

  21. Impact of Eureka Peter Lalor was elected to Parliament that year and served as a member for 32 years including 7 as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. He died aged 62, in 1889. H/W: Read Eureka – reality and myth. Identify the leading factors in the Eureka rebellion.