slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
環境倫理學 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
環境倫理學

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

環境倫理學 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 146 Views
  • Uploaded on

環境倫理學. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學 環境 與生態學院 生態科學與技術學系. 環境倫理學. T00. 簡介:環境倫理與哲學 Part I 倫理與科學 T01. 道德哲學 (moral philosophy) :理性與感性 T02. 道德考量 (moral consideration) :倫理與科學 T03. 倫理與經濟:公有財 (The Common Good) Part II 倫理推定 (presumptions) 的建構與驗證 T04. 責任 (duty) :自然和未來世代

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '環境倫理學' - hafwen


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

環境倫理學

鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學

環境 與生態學院生態科學與技術學系

slide2
環境倫理學
    • T00. 簡介:環境倫理與哲學
  • Part I 倫理與科學
    • T01. 道德哲學(moral philosophy):理性與感性
    • T02. 道德考量(moral consideration):倫理與科學
    • T03. 倫理與經濟:公有財 (The Common Good)
  • Part II 倫理推定(presumptions)的建構與驗證
    • T04. 責任 (duty):自然和未來世代
    • T05. 品性 (character):生態美德
    • T06. 關係 (relationships):同理心與正直
    • T07. 權利 (rights):人類與動物
    • T08. 後果 (consequences):預測未來

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

slide3
環境倫理學
  • Part III 自然學習 (Learning from Nature)
    • T09. 生態生活:可持續消費
    • T10. 環境政策:政府、機構和NGOs
    • T11. 健康環境:空氣與水
    • T12. 農業:土地與食物
    • T13. 公有地:適應式管理
    • T14. 城鄉生態學:綠色建構
    • T15. 氣候變遷:全球溫化

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

t09 ecological living

Part III Learning from Nature

T09. Ecological Living:可持續消費

鄭先祐 (Ayo) 教授 國立臺南大學

環境 與生態學院生態科學與技術學系

t09 ecological living1
T09. Ecological Living:可持續消費
  • 責任(Duty): to reduce our consumption
  • 品行(Character): consumer choice
  • 關係(Relationships): our natural community
  • 權利(Rights): to a healthy environment
  • 後果(Consequences): sustainable consumption

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

duty to reduce our consumption
責任 (Duty):to reduce our consumption
  • We should respect the intrinsic worth of nature, moral consideration for the well-being of future generations, and protect the rights of the poor to an equitable share of the earth’s resources(同世代與跨世代公平).
  • We have a duty to practice the three Rs, reduce, reuse, and recycle.(生態原則)
  • We have a duty to constrain our use of both private and publicland.(公益原則)

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

duty equity
Duty:國際考量 (Equity)
  • Brundtland Report by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development asserts the right to sustainable development for every society.
  • The issue of equity concerns how to apportion(分攤) responsibility for achieving economic development and consumption that is environmentally sustainable.
    • 已發展國家的財富與發展中國家的財富,差距擴大。
    • Developed societies not only have a duty to provide funds for sustainable development in poorer countries, but also have a duty to reduce consumption if this is necessary to realize environmental sustainability.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

duty agenda 21
Duty:國際考量 (Agenda 21)
  • Agenda 21, which was approved at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, affirms such duty.
  • Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated.
  • But unsustainable consumption in developed societies poses the main threat.
      • The industrialized countries have a duty to fund sustainable development in developing countries. (Chapter 33 of Agenda 21)
    • Developed countries should reaffirm their commitments to reach the accepted UN target of 0.7 % of GNP.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

character religious life
品行(character):Religious Life
  • The scriptures of Jews and Muslims teach that serving God leads to the joy of salvation
    • Christian scripture, we should love our neighbors as ourselves.
  • The focus of Buddhist teaching is overcoming desire(慾望) through mindfulness(修心), because the desire to possess the world through mindless consumption(任意消費) is illusory(虛空).
  • The virtue of gratitude(感恩), integrity(誠正) and frugality(簡樸) is the goals of religious orders.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

love of animals
品行:Love of Animals
  • Jane Goodall Institute (JGI), global nonprofit that empowers people to make a difference for all living things.
    • Are creating healthy ecosystems, promoting sustainable livelihoods and nurturing new generations of committed, active citizens around the world.
  • The ethical choice of purchasing shade-grown coffee grown in the Gombe ecosystem, which is marketed by Green Mountain Coffee Roasters.
    • Supporting cultivation of a sustainable, chimpanzee-friendly crop grown by farmers in western Tanzania.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

eating vegetarians
品行:Eating (vegetarians)
  • The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that about half of the grains harvested today are fed to livestock.
    • Feedlot cattle consume 7 kilograms of grain to produce kilogram of live weight.
  • Vegetarians. (印度教和佛教,不殺生,免業障)
  • We may choose to eat lower on the food chain without becoming strict vegetarians.
    • Eating lower on the food chain reduces our per capita consumption of grain, and this means there is more grain for others to eat.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

slide12
品行:消費者的力量
  • Consumers may influence markets.
    • Consumers can purchase products and services (in an environmentally friendly way)
    • In response to consumer demand, Home Depot sells lumber that is certified to have been cut in sustainably managed forests.
    • In 2002 Dell made a commitment to recycle and reuse 98% of the original materials in its computers, if the consumer pays the shipping costs to return a Dell computer to the nearest recycling center.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

slide13
關係:我們的自然社群
  • Local(在地化) : control and consumption
    • Outsiders are more likely to sacrifice the environment for short-term economic gain.
    • Local control encourage local consumption, and when local products are consumed locally people are “likely to have a greater attachment to the land.
    • All sustainability is local. We cannot simply apply abstract economic or ecological principles to a landscape, but need to assess the nature of a particular place.
    • Participation in decision-making is a human right.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

slide14
關係:消費主義 (廣告)
  • Contemporary advertising promotes greater consumption and “the link of consumption with happiness, acceptance, and status.”
  • There is a good reason to be critical of advertising and to oppose the government’s subsidy that makes it tax exempt as a business expense.
    • Advertising convinces us as a society to allocate more resources toward market goods, correspondingly fewer are available to allocate toward non-market goods.
    • Advertising convinces us to degrade or destroy public goods for private gain.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

to a healthy environment
權利:to a healthy environment
  • It is reasonable to support laws that regulate agriculture, the raising of livestock, food processing, and global trade that brings food into the country, and also to support taxes that enable governments to provide these essential services.
  • We cannot expect to have a healthy life as a people without exercising our rights in manner that maintains a healthy natural environment.
  • Environmental impact of cattle

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

environmental impact of cattle
Environmental impact of cattle
  • Erosion and loss of topsoil, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity
  • The subsidized use of surface water and water from aquifers.
  • Subsidies paid to agribusiness for growing corn (which is fed to cattle).
  • Sewage disposal from cattle feedlots.
  • Medical cost related to feeding animals in feedlots and eating animals products.
  • Antibiotic-resistant infection
  • Transport costs including the CO2 emissions
  • Emission released in producing fertilizers

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

sustainable consumption
後果:sustainable consumption
  • We weigh the value of ecosystem integrity and human rights without using cost-benefit analysis.
  • We attempt to internalize the costs of economic externalities.
  • Burden of proof
  • If the integrity of an ecosystem, or a human right, is at risk, then the evidence to set aside a presumption(倫理推定) should be compelling (強制的).(必要有舉證責任)

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

presumptions
Presumptions: 責任
  • Affirm and maintain the intrinsic worth of a healthy environment.
  • Care for the future generations by consuming on more than is fair for our generation
  • Respect the rights of others to use the natural resources we are also consuming.
  • Abide by Agenda 2 by giving 0.7% of GNPto less developed countries.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

presumptions1
Presumptions: 品行與關係
  • Live with greater frugality for the sake of present and future generations.
  • Eat lower on the food chain to attain a more sustainable way of living.
  • End the tax deduction for advertising because it subsidizes greater consumption.
  • Support shade-grown coffee and other ecologicalagricultural practices.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

presumptions2
Presumptions: 權利
  • Support taxes and laws to ensure safe, adequate, and affordable food.
  • Eat less beef to protect the environment and increase the supply of grain for food.
  • Support greater control by local people over the use of local land.(在地化)
  • Internalize the externalities of food production.

Ayo Env. Ethics 2011

ayo nutn website http myweb nutn edu tw hycheng

問題與討論

Ayo NUTN website:

http://myweb.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/