UJTL-JTS-METLs and Capabilities David K. Brown USFF N722A Dynamics Research Corporation 1
BLUF: Executive Level METL Advocacy • “METL” is very easy to say- but takes an “Intellectual Capital” investment to comprehend. • Overarching guidance is pretty good and aligned. • Transformation Programs are revolving around“METL” poles –the Joint Training System is just one of them: JTS, DRRS, JCIDS, “T2”, DODAF all require UJTL-METL knowledge. • Answers calls for innovativeimprovement systems and best practices. • “Universal” - Applicable across the D-I-M-E construct of employing national capabilities - or any other approach.
Agenda • Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) Framework • UJTL Task Libraries • The Mission Essential Task (MET) statement • Mission Analysis to METL Process • Applications • Future
METLS METLS Development Phases Bewilderment Confusion Denial Hostility Understanding Advocacy
UJTL: The Task “Library” • UJTL is a task library • Actually a collection of Task Libraries. • Tasks with sample Measures: • SN: Strategic National- • Major DOD HQ level activities • ST: Strategic Theater- • (For Some, the Theater is “Global”) • OP: Operational- • Link Strategic Objectives with Tactical Actions • TA: Tactical (ne’ “Interoperability”) • Service and Agency libraries link from the TA section. • UJTL also houses a “Conditions” library
STRATEGIC NATIONAL Accomplish Objectives of National Strategy Accomplish Objectives of Theater and Campaign Strategy STRATEGIC THEATER Subordinate Campaigns and Major Operations Accomplish Objectives of OPERATIONAL Universal Task List “Library” SN 1 CONDUCT STRATEGIC MOVEMENT SN 2 DEVELOP STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE SN 3 EMPLOY STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES SN 4 PROVIDE STRATEGIC SUSTAINMENT SN 5 PROVIDE STRATEGIC DIRECTION & INTEGRATION SN 6 PROTECT STATEGIC CAPABILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE ST 2 DEVELOP THEATER STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE ST 1 CONDUCT INTRATHEATER CONCENTRATION, AND MANEUVER OF FORCES ST 3 EMPLOY THEATER STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES ST 4 SUSTAIN THEATER FORCES ST 5 PROVIDE THEATER STRATEGIC COMMAND AND CONTROL ST 6 PROVIDE THEATER PROTECTION OP 5 EXERCISE OPERATIONAL COMMAND & CONTROL OP 1 CONDUCT OPERATIONAL MOVEMENT & MANEUVER OP 2 DEVELOP OPERATIONAL KNOWLEDGE OP 3 EMPLOY OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES OP 4 PROVIDE OPERATIONAL SUPPORT OP 6 PROVIDE OPERATIONAL PROTECTION Accomplish Objectives of TACTICAL Actions and Activities TA 1 MOVE FORCES AND CONDUCT ACTIVITIES TA 2 DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE TA 3 EMPLOY CAPABILTIES TA 4 PERFORM LOGISTICS AND COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT TA 5 EXERCISE COMMAND & CONTROL TA 6 PROTECT THE FORCE UTL TAXONOMY: “Demilitarization” of the language used in the Library
UJTL: The Task “Library” • “Nature” of War – Most tasks should endure. • Based on six functions: • Movement and Maneuver • Sensing, Studying, Learning and Knowing what is going on • (“Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance”) • Employment of Capabilities • (Current version very “Heat, Blast and Fragmentation” centric • Sustainment/ Logistics • Command and Control • Planning, Communicating, Networking, and Publicizing • Protection • People, Systems and Infrastructure, Information, and the Environment • Each section developed independently. • Extra task sections added to emphasize “hot button” issues. • Probably just “Missions” • Always amenable for improvement as new missions and tasks are identified. • Framing and placement very important.
Centrality of UJTL • - Uses UJTL as “library of tasks” to define mission requirements. • Output is J/A METL, used to prioritize training requirements. • DRRS documents task-centric readiness assessments based on joint and service mission essential task lists. Defense Readiness Reporting System (DRRS) Joint Training System (JTS) Joint Capabilities Development and Integration System (JCIDS) Capabilities-Based Planning System • Acquisition portfolios defined by JCAs; • JCAs defined by a UJTL task templates … linked to Service task lists. • SECDEF directed focus on capabilities • Uses JCA mapping framework linked to UJTL Task templates and Service task lists.
Tasks in the Libraries are…. • Universal and potentially “enduring” • Discrete events or actions (Finite, distinct and measurable) • Just the action or activity: “The WHAT” that must be done • Doctrinally based - or as defined in developing concepts • Activities/ results visible outside the organization • Potential sources for crafting Mission statements • Doctrinally, a “mission” is a “Task with a purpose.” • Capable of being improved, advanced, or clarified
Tasks in the Libraries are not…. • Statements that say “WHO” • Statements that say “HOW” or define a system or a process • Statements that say “WHY” • Statements that include the environment • That’s why we have “Conditions” • Duplicative of other Tasks: • Not “Plan ASW” or “Plan IO” but “Plan” • Just new ways of saying the same thing • Necessarily perfectly written or placed in best location • In need of many adjectives or adverbs
New Tasks • CJCSM 3500.02 UJTL Policy and Guidance: If an approved UJTL task does not fully describe the action or function required by a commander: Use conditions and standards to more accurately set the parameters of the task. If specific conditions and standards do not adequately meet the task description requirements ……. task submission process detailed in UJTL instruction must be used to recommend a new task (or changes to existing tasks).
UJTL: The “Framework” for METS • Lays out the common framework for: • Stating mission requirements • Planning across “DOTMLPF” • Defining capabilities • Assembling DODAF architectures • Measuring performance • Reporting readiness • Mission Essential Task (MET) framework: “Do this Task…. under these Conditions…. to this Standard.”
METL Terms • Mission - The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. • Essential - Absolutely necessary; indispensable; critical. • Task - A discrete event or action, not specific to a single unit, weapon system, or individual that enables a mission or function to be accomplished. • Mission Essential Task List (METL) - A list of tasks considered essential to the accomplishment of the mission. A METL includes associated conditions and standards and may identify command-linked and supporting tasks.
Conditions: The “Environment” Conditions are variables of the operational environment or situation that may affect performance. Categorized as physical, military or civil. Environment is the immediate situation or circumstance in which tasks must be performed (e.g. Air temperature). "Relevant" conditions go in MET statements. They frame level of difficulty for task (and mission) performance. Conditions linked to tasks in the METL are ones that will impact achievement of task standards. “Conditions” work for PMESII, DIME, DIME-FIL, METT-TC, etc plus help us get to “Effects” and “Risk.”
Conditions 1.0 Physical Environment 3.0 Civil Environment 2.0 Military Environment 2.1 Mission 2.2 Forces 2.3 Command, Control, & Communications 2.4 Intelligence 2.5 Deployment, Movement, & Maneuver 2.6 Firepower 2.7 Protection 2.8 Sustainment 2.9 Threat 2.10 Conflict 1.1 Land 1.2 Sea 1.3 Air 1.4 Space 1.5 Cyber 3.1 Political Policies 3.2 Culture 3.3 Economy
Example: Reference number and title: C 126.96.36.199 Sea Room Definition: Availability of space for maritime maneuver. Includes dynamic factors such as confining ice, submerged wrecks, or potentially damaging floating objects such as logs. Applies especially to coastal, polar, littoral, or riverine environments. Descriptors: Unrestricted (open ocean); Moderate (some confining factors); Confined (coastal and riverine waters) Conditions • No inherent Likert scale from the Library. Only from context of a METL!
STANDARDS, Measures & Criteria Measures Distinguish among varying levels of task performance Allow commanders to establish standardsconsistent with mission requirements Provide basis for evaluation and assessment of performance (e.g., Task performance evaluation and readiness assessment) Criteria: Same as Balanced Scorecard “Targets” TaskCriterionMeasure NTA 3.2.2 Attack Enemy Land Targets >90 Percent of targets destroyed Standard = Measure + Criterion - Multiple standards are the norm: Inputs, Processes, and Outputs/ Results - Aligns with best performance management practices
MET Measures Guidance • Categories: Input, Process, Output, Outcome • Focus on “Process” and “Outcome” (or “Product”) • Simple, • Reflect commander’s guidance • Reflect understanding of task and its contribution to mission success. • Sensitive to impact of changing conditions • GO-No Go measures discouraged • Use both absolute and relative scales • Criteria set by “capabilities” inherent in DOTMLP-F system design
MET Linkages • METLs are not isolated- but LINKED to supporting/ supported Commands. • Linkages will key views for the “Comprehensive Approach” and development of new supporting capabilities. • “Supporting” tasks are performed by organizations within Commander’s/ leader’s/ director’s… span of control. - E.g.Local org supports regional/state authority which supports national authority • “Command-linked” tasks are performed by organizations outside of the Commander’s / leader’s/director’s… control. -E.g.Dep’t of Transportation supports each level: federal, state and local • Links key network views. • Links connect Analysis of Alternatives and lay pathways for Modeling and Simulation (M&S) efforts in training and development.
The METL Process Common Language/ Framework Mission Analysis Universal Task Library “METs” Operating Concepts Level of War Plans/Orders Org’s Task Library Specify Conditions Doctrine Mission Essential Criteria Assigned Missions TTP, Best Practices, Local Knowledge, Lessons Learned Establish Standards Annotate Supported Tasks Specified Tasks Leaders’ Guidance METL Implied Tasks ID Command-Linked Tasks
Sample “MET” Task: OP 188.8.131.52 Conduct Air Interdiction of Operational Forces/Targets Conditions: C.2.1.3 Mission Prep (Partial) C 2.2.4 Personnel Capability (Proficient) C 184.108.40.206 Systems Reliability (Adequate) C 220.127.116.11 Communications Connectivity (Continuous) Standards: Measure + Criterion < X Hours elapsed from notification to TOT Y/N Enemy unable to interfere with attack > 95 Percent of weapons achieve desired effects
DODD 1322.18, Sep. 3, 2004 “Military Training” 4.3. All Training: Individual, team, collective, unit, and staff “The Commander is the trainer!” – “METs” • Conditions of actual operations • Prep for Combatant Commanders -- full spectrum of operations • Deploying Organizations receive priority and tailored training • Rehearsed and ready • Provide for emerging capabilities for future operations. • Lessonsgathered and validated from operational missions, training events, operational tests, and experimentsshall be incorporated expeditiously into the training requirements. • Use Joint Training System Process
Joint Training System Plans Requirements METLs and Linkages Tasks, Conditions and Standards JTPs / Exercises/ Experiments/ Wargames Events and Resources w/ Costs IMPROVE MISSION READINESS Assessment Execution ROI Validation Readiness Indicators Lessons Learned and New Ideas for DOTMLPF Solutions Performance, Experience and Resource Data & Observations
DOTMLPF = “System” • Doctrine • Organization • Training • Material • Leadership and Education • Personnel • Facilities = “SYSTEM” in DOD Terminology
DRRS “Near Real Time” readiness reporting. Eliminates separate “SORTS” messages. DRRS Readiness screen displays each MET vs each required mission/ capability. MET can be shown with all standards and demonstrated performance values System generates a recommended score based on authoritative data sources. Commander’s review/ assessment validates & updates system score-- Mission by Mission, MET by MET and Standard by Standard. Tools: Aggregation/ Drill down/ Planning capability- “What if…”
MET-based Readiness: Performance Confidence that a given unit will achieve a given performance level on a specific task with given Conditions. Depends on at least five “parameters”: Most recent MET performance Performance Trends (improving?, declining? …) Changes to DOTMLPF Time since most recent success “Conditions” ANYTHING that raises that confidence, raises Readiness!
The language of Capabilities is the language of METs! Capability-Based Planning- CBP & METLs & the JTS • Capability includes : “The means and ways (DOTMLPF) to execute a set of tasks to standards under specified conditions.” • MET framework: • Do this task…under these conditions…to this standard.
Capabilities-Based Assessment “CBA” CBA (in JCIDS) consists of three Analyses: FAA Functional Area Analysis Each capability must produce results as measured by task performance against standards under specified conditions. FAA produces MET-like performance “requirements” FNA Functional Needs Analysis Based on the FAA, each capability requirement is matched against existing systems and methods (current capabilities) OPs Lessons Learned, Experiments, Training or Wargames FNA identifies “Gaps and Seams” “Capacity” gap vs “Capability” Gap FSA Functional Solutions Analysis Each gap has many potential “DOTMLPF” solutions FSA works for optimal path.
Analysis of a MET/ “CBA” 6 parts clear? Mission, Responsible Organization, Tasks, Conditions, Standards, Linkages Standards conform?- “Process” and “Product” measures? Do METL measures support command “metrics”? Linkages complete? MET Performance Analysis: Standards met? -> Performance Gaps? Ways and means adequate? New DOTMLPF required? FAA FNA Capability & Capacity Gaps FSA
“Document the business process: … high- level concept is analyzed and a business process or activity model is constructed … To the extent possible, use activities from accepted standard tasks lists such as the UJTL, Joint Mission Essential Task Lists (JMETLs) developed by one or more of the commands, and/or Service Task Lists.” DODAF Version 1 Common Theme of JCIDs and DODAF is the “TASK” …. Of the “Lists”…. Only the METLs have context!
Futures: UTL Progress/ Goals • Universal search for agreed Taxonomy • “Bins” should match current concept of UJTL: • Movement, Knowledge, Employment, Sustainment, Planning and Directing (C&C), Protection. • Works for DOD, but also HLS, DOS, DOT, BLM…WALMART • Once tasks agreed to, just a limited number of representative Measures need to be listed; a centrally accessible METL warehouse will be the repository. • Ready to incorporate national-state-local agencies ASAP and will be able to accommodate NGOs in future. • New Orgs can join with separate task library. “Organizational” level tasks- probably “Tactical”- but must learn to leverage global taxonomy and METL framework. • Business rules/ Guidance same for all • Disciplined execution
Understanding Missions, METLs, and Conditions for DRRS, Effects and Capabilities • METLs state Mission performance requirements from which all other requirements devolve. • Mission-to-task framework can be used to measure and assess advantages of “Network” centric concepts and other new ventures. • Capabilities and METLs use same language and structure. • Method defines capabilities, applies to planning, resourcing, budgeting, execution, training, and assessment. Understanding the Framework and Disciplined Execution of the Process are the key to systematic continuous improvement.
TransforMation UnifiEdAction RelaTionships Lessons Learned ComprehenSiveApproach Keys to Success in “GWOT” …and the Future…. ALIGNMENT
Summary • UJTL provides framework and Task library • Includes sample measures for each task • Conditions library to describe the environment • METL framework is same as used in Capabilities • “Do this task… under theses conditions… to this standard” • METLs state mission requirements- on which all other “requirements” depend. • JTS process is applicable across the planning, training, education, development, and operating domains. • The major output of JTS is “Mission Ready Forces and Personnel.”
References Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) CJCSM 3500.04 series On “JDEIS” Site https://jdeis.js.mil/jdeis/jel/template.jsp?title=ujtlportal&filename=ujtl_portal.htm Joint Training Manual (JTM) CJCSM 3500.03 series On “JDEIS” Site https://jdeis.js.mil/jdeis/jel/training/cjcsm3500_03.pdf Defense Readiness Reporting System (DRRS) DODD 7730.65 series http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/773065p.pdf Capabilities Portfolio Management DODD 7045.20 series http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/704520p.pdf