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Developing the convergence of CAQDAS and GIS

Developing the convergence of CAQDAS and GIS

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Developing the convergence of CAQDAS and GIS

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  1. Developing the convergence of CAQDAS and GIS César A. Cisneros Puebla Autonomous Metropolitan University Campus Iztapalapa, México CAQDAS Free Seminar University of Surrey, UK November 12, 2008

  2. I. Conceptual Framework • Overview • Naïve Geography • Qualitative Mapping: Experiences • Geographic Information Systems • Spatially Integrated Social Science

  3. Naïve Geography • Egenhofer (1995) outlined it as: • ”the field of study that is concerned with formal models of the common-sense geographic world” (p.1) • “the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world” (p.4) • “stablishes the link between how people think about geographic space and how to develop formal models of such reasoning that can be incorporated into software systems” (p.11) • “is also the basis for the design of intelligent GISs that will act and respond as a a person would, therefore, empowering people to utilize GISs as realiable sources, without stunning surprises when using the system” (p.1)

  4. Qualitative Mapping: Experiences • Community Mapping as a participatory research and evaluation tool (Amsden & VanWynsberghe, 2005) • Ethnographic mapmaking (Kuznar & Werner, 2001) • PLACE as a rapid assessment technique that identifies high risk venues for HIV transmission in order to target interventions in high risk areas (Weir SS, Morroni C, Coetzee N, Spencer J, & Boerma JT. (2002)

  5. Just criticisms to the misuse of GIS? • Feminist Geography and GIS (Kwan, 2002) • Participatory GIS (Elwood, 2006) • Ontology-based Metadata (Schuurman & Leszczynski, 2006) • Social Critique of GIS (Gahegan & Pike, 2006)

  6. Spatially Integrated Social Science(Goodchild, et al 2000) • Representation of spatial phenomena • Spatial data analysis • Visualization and communication of spatial information • Simulation of social systems in a spatial and temporal context • Access to spatial data

  7. II. An empirical work • Overview • Qualitative Geographic Information System • CAQDAS and Google Earth • Case Study: Paraguay

  8. Qualitative GIS • Critical geographers calling the attention about the potential of using GIS in Qualitative Research (Pavlovskaya, 2006) • Qualitative geographers developing VBA modules to be integrated to CAQDAS (Kwan & Ding, 2008)

  9. Geotagging in CAQDAS • From a critical view, Goodchild (2006) asked about new technologies: • Who does it empower, and who does it marginalize? • What applications are being built on Google Earth, and by whom and for what purposes? • What, for example, determines the variability in Google Earth coverage, from high resolution in some areas to much lower resolution in others – whose agenda is being served here?

  10. Google Earth can properly be described as a Geographical Information System (GIS). Since its launch in 2005, Google claims that 350 million copies have been downloaded world wide. Unlike Google Earth, software applications like ArcGIS suite or MapInfo are capable of complex analysis and transformations of spatial data. Google Earth phenomenon

  11. Google Earth is at the same time: a software tool, a standard for exchanging spatial data a massive collection of archived satellite and aerial imagery by comparison with GIS, Google Earth: is not a sophisticated cartographic (map drawing) system, nor a means of doing complex spatial analysis Google Earth phenomenon (cont.)

  12. 5.8 million people 50% Bilingual Spanish/ Guarani; 37% monolingual Guarani Stroessner dictatorship fell in 1989 – new democracy Economic stagnation with growing inequality (GINI 57.7) 28% urban population cannot meet basic needs (41% rural) 23% of population are school age children (6-18) Case Study: Paraguay

  13. Asunción, Paraguay • The city is bounded on the north and west by the Paraguay River • The greater Asunción metropolitan area extends to the east and south to comprise a total population of 1.4 million • The historic city center has declined dramatically in recent decades • The working poor in Asunción have settled the flood planes along the coast of the Paraguay river, building houses in a wide range of materials (from cardboard to brick) on informally claimed marginal land

  14. Adolescent Reproductive Health • 60/1000 Age-specific fertility • 27.9% 15-19 ever-pregnant • 22% 15-17 sexually initiated • 57.9% 18-19 sexually initiated • <3% married at time of first sex nationally (<1% in Asuncion) • 56% used contraception at first sex • 66% of contraceptors used condoms at first sex

  15. CEPEP’s Espacio Joven Project Stated Goal: to improve sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the cities of Asunción, San Lorenzo, and Encarnación, with an emphasis on preventing unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS Objectives: • Improve knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues including HIV/AIDS • Increase access to sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents in CEPEP’s clinics

  16. Targeting the Needs Assessment • Health Goal (maintained): Prevent unplanned pregnancies and Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV/AIDS among youth aged 12 - 24 • Behavior Change • Delaying Sexual Initiation • Reducing the Frequency of Intercourse • Reducing the Number of Sexual Partners • Increasing the Use of Condoms and Contraceptives “Reduce the number of unprotected sex acts by promoting the correct and consistent use of condoms and contraception”

  17. Determinants I Community-level Factors • (-) Crime, violence, poverty, unemployment, out-of-school youth, residential mobility, community stress • (+) Adult community members who monitor youth behaviors • (+) Availability of contraceptive services and supplies Family-level Factors • (+) Appropriate parental supervision and monitoring • (+) Parent/child communication about sex/contraception/HIV • (+) Positive use of free time

  18. Determinants II Individual-level Factors (School, Peers, Partners) • (+) Attachment to school • (+) Participation in extra-curricular activities • (+) High aspirations for the future • (+) Received HIV/Sex Education • (-) Substance use, delinquency, problem or risk-taking behaviors • (-) Peer risk behaviors • (-) Sexually active peers (unless also using protection +) • (+/-) Relationship type and quality • (+) Partner communication about sex and protection • (-) Partner risk behaviors

  19. Design of Needs Assessment CEPEP Target Neighborhoods • 6 neighborhoods within 2 km • Clinic statistics Community Mapping • 500 GPS points for non-residential sites • Large printed maps for group discussions

  20. Design: Community Mapping Small Group Discussions • 24 groups (12m/12f) • 6-8 participants in each • Moderator wrote fieldnotes then added abridged transcriptions from digital recordings • Thematic analysis based on RQ domains • MAXqda2 and MAXmaps software

  21. Objectives: • Build an understanding of the factors that influence youth’s use or non-use of condoms, contraceptives, and clinical services • Identify places in the community where youth spend time and understand how those places are associated with high risk behaviors and/or protective activities • Develop an understanding of adolescent relationships and how they relate to abstinence and sexual activity

  22. Objective 1 To build an understanding of the factors that influence youth’s use or non-use of condoms, contraceptives, and clinical services • Where do youth get information about protection? • Where do they go for contraceptive supplies and/or condoms? • What do they perceive to be the barriers and facilitators of use? • Are they familiar with services offered by the Espacio Joven project. Domains: • sex education • parent/child communication around sex and protection • peer sexual activity and use of condoms/contraceptives • partner communication and agreement on the use of protection

  23. Objective 2 To identify places in the community where youth spend time and understand how those places are associated with high risk behaviors and/or protective activities • How do youth perceive risk in their communities? • How and where and with whom do they spend time? • Where youth go to avoid adult supervision? Domains • community-level risk and protective factors • monitoring and supervision by parents and other adults • attachment to home/family life, school, work, church, etc. • participation in extracurricular activities • engagement in risk behaviors (substance use, delinquency, or other problem behaviors at the level of individuals, peers and partners)

  24. Objective 3 To develop an understanding of adolescent relationships and how they relate to abstinence and sexual activity • Where do youth meet potential romantic partners? • Are partners peers or people outside primary social networks? • Where do romantic partners spend time together? domains • types of adolescent relationships • partner characteristics • perceptions of relationship ‘quality’ • adult supervision

  25. III. Challenges and Reflections • New tools (ATLAS.ti 6 & MAXqda 2007) • Integration to Geographic Information Systems • Convergence into Google Earth • Software design

  26. Geolinks to GE and hyperlinks in MAXqda 2007

  27. Geolinks to GE in MAXMaps 2007

  28. Embed GE within HU in ATLAS.ti 6

  29. GE Preferences in ATLAS.ti 6

  30. ArcGIS: Density of Contraceptive Availability

  31. ArcGIS: Places Where Youth Spend Free Time and Density of Contraceptive Availability

  32. ArcGIS: Perception of Unsafe Places by Young Men

  33. ArcGIS: Perception of Unsafe Places by Young Women

  34. ArcGIS: Shared Perception of Unsafe Places by Young Men

  35. ArcGIS: Shared Perception of Unsafe Places by Young Women

  36. Geo-referred coded segments to be retrieved Is Geotagging just a first next step? Challenge to integrate GIS and CAQDQAS Integrate GeoTaggging and Geo Viewing tools to CAQDAS GE tools into CAQDAS Complex analysis of spatial data using GIS 3D Visualization tools Qualitative GIS as a supportive scenario Dialogue between disciplines and software development Final Remarks (from CAQDAS 2007 to this Free Seminar 2008)