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A Diagnostic Teaching Intervention for Classroom Teachers: Helping Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School in Ru

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A Diagnostic Teaching Intervention for Classroom Teachers: Helping Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School in Rural America. Lynne Vernon-Feagans University of North Carolina. The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI). Targeting instructional match in every interaction….

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slide1

A Diagnostic Teaching Intervention for Classroom Teachers: Helping Struggling Readers in Early Elementary Schoolin Rural America

Lynne Vernon-Feagans

University of North Carolina

slide2

The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI)

Targeting instructional match in every interaction…

the targeted reading intervention
The Targeted Reading Intervention

Lynne Vernon-Feagans

Kate Gallagher

Marnie Ginsberg

Steve Amendum

Kirsten Kainz

Peg Burchinal

Steve Knotek

Kelley Mayer

Jason Rose

Tim Wood

Natalie Phelps

Jeanne Gunther

Mandy Peters

Iris Padgett

the rural context
Children are poorer

Children have lower pre-readiness skills

Housing is poorer

Distances to services and schools are greater

Jobs are lower paying and in the service sector

Bus rides are longer

Teachers are less skilled

Tax base is lower

Children are exposed to less random violent crime

More two parent families

More home ownership

A greater sense of place

Teachers know many of the families of the children they teach

Teachers have more experience

Families rate teachers more favorably

The Rural Context

Assets

Challenges

purpose
Purpose

The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI) is designed to improve the literacy teaching strategies of teachers in low wealth rural communities, using an individualized diagnostic teaching model, with a specific focus on teaching strategies that are effective with struggling readers who do not make reading gains using traditional reading instruction.

the tri studies
The TRI Studies
  • Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials to assess the effectiveness of the TRI in a series of 3 research studies
  • Part of the National Research Center on Rural Education Support (Tom Farmer & Lynne Vernon-Feagans)
    • www.nrcres.org/TRI.htm
  • Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES)
background on struggling readers
Background on Struggling Readers
  • Children’s early success in reading is critical for their later schooling success (Juel, 1988; Foorman et al., 1998)
  • Research shows that by the end of first grade children’s trajectories are set for school (Alexander & Entwisle, 1988)
two groups most at risk for reading failure
Two Groups most at Risk for Reading Failure
  • Low income children are the large group least responsive to interventions (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001; Torgesen et al., 2007)
  • Children who have phonological processing problems who are often identified as reading or learning disabled are also less responsive to intervention (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001)
  • These two groups overlap
slide14

Model of Early Reading

  • Preventing Reading Failure in Young Children (1998)
  • The National Reading Panel (2000)
  • No Child Left Behind Legislation (2001)
    • Reading First
  • National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005)
effective interventions for struggling readers vernon feagans gallagher kainz in press
Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers(Vernon-Feagans, Gallagher & Kainz, in press)
  • 1. Explicit Instruction
  • 2. Early Intervention in first few grades
  • 3. One on one and small group instruction
  • 4. Effective classroom teacher/child relationships
  • 5. Diagnostic Teaching
targeted reading intervention tier 2 intervention
Targeted Reading Intervention (Tier 2 Intervention)
  • Collaborative consultation in the regular classroom setting with the classroom teacher
  • Intensive, diagnostic reading instruction for each struggling reader by the classroom teacher
  • Instructional match in each teacher/child interaction
  • Integration of word attack skills within the context of words and text and in guided oral reading
  • Daily instruction 15 minutes per day until child makes rapid progress
  • Delivered in one-on-one sessions between teacher and child
the tri delivery model
The TRI Delivery Model
  • 3 Day Workshop in the summer
  • Continual teacher work during the summer with children with email/phone distant consultation
  • Identification of struggling readers at the beginning of school
  • Weekly, biweekly or monthly problem solving between literacy consultant and teacher, using TRI strategies
  • Weekly/biweekly grade level meetings with our literacy consultants
  • Training of an on site literacy consultant
aligned with goals needs of rural teachers
Aligned with goals/needs of rural teachers
  • Geared to low wealth schools
  • Can be accomplished without many material or people resources
  • Can Be used with any curricula
  • Is supportive of isolated teachers
  • Is sustainable with current funding
tri materials
TRI Materials

TRI Reference Tool

TRI Picture Dictionary

TRI Professional Development Guide

  • Posters
  • Reading Model
  • Stages of Word Work

TRI diagnostic map

tri framework
TRI Framework

Re-Reading for Fluency

(~2+ minutes)

Word Work

(~8+ minutes)

Guided Oral Reading

(~5+ minutes)

TRI Extensions

slide22

“What’s the student’s most pressing need?”

Diagnostic Map

Student ___________________________ Date ___________________

Assessment-Based planAssessment of Today’s WorkMoving Forward

Re-Reading for Fluency

  • Model fluent reading, this text
  • Re-Read the same text
  • Show off to class or adult
  • Move to next text

Text

______________________

______________________

Word Work

Change One Sound

  • Repeat changing w/ 3-sound words
  • Begin/Repeat changing w/ 4-sound words
  • Repeat sound(s) _____
  • Move to new sound _____
  • Fade to oral only

Target Sounds

______________________

Word Chain

______________________

Sort, Write, & Say

  • Repeat sound ________
  • Move to new sound ________
  • Repeat sound 2+ sessions from now ___
  • Fade this activity

Quick Review of Sounds

______________________

Focus Sound

______________________

  • Repeat w/ same sound ______
  • Repeat w/ a mix of sounds ____
  • Repeat sound 2+ sessions from now
  • Search for same sound ______
  • Add to Sort, Write, & Say sheet
  • Search for one sound _____ & then another
  • Repeat 2+ sessions from now

Word Division or Search for the Sound

______________________

______________________

______________________

Try One Strategy ________________ Flexible w/ the Try One Strategy?________

Pocket Phrases

  • Repeat phrase(s) ______________________________________
  • Teach new phrase _____________________________________
  • Target word(s) ______________________________________
  • Fade this activity

Review

______________________

New

______________________

tri primary word work strategies
TRI: Primary Word Work Strategies
  • Segmenting Words
  • Change One Sound
  • Read, Write, & Say
  • Pocket Phrases

Word Work

(~8+ minutes)

tri framework26
TRI Framework

Guided Oral Reading

(~5+ minutes)

TRI Extensions

three studies tri in rural low wealth schools
Three Studies: TRI in Rural Low-wealth Schools
  • Study 1: a one semester TRI intervention in a in non-Reading First schools in kindergarten and first grade.
  • Study 2: Is a two semester TRI intervention in Reading First Schools in kindergarten and first grade.
  • Study 3: a two semester TRI intervention in Texas and New Mexico, using distance literacy consultation with laptop computers and web cams
research design
Research Design
  • Randomly assigned schools to the intervention and the control condition. Targeted all kindergarten and first grade classrooms to be part of the study.
    • 3-5 focal children in each classroom were randomly selected from those children identified by the teacher as struggling learners
    • 3-5 non-focal children in each classroom were randomly selected from those children identified by the teacher as not struggling learners
slide32

Year 1(non Reading First)

20 teachers

(n = 163)

Year 2 (Reading First)

24 teachers

(n = 170)

Kindergarten

1st Grade

Kindergarten

1st Grade

Experimental

Control

change in the intent to treat design for study 1
Change in the Intent to Treat Design for Study 1
  • No teacher was able to get through all five children. Most teachers were only able to work with 2 to 3 children
  • Created an adequate fidelity and inadequate fidelity group within the focal experimental group
five groups of children
Five Groups of Children
  • 1. Control non-focal
  • 2. Control focal
  • 3. Experimental non-focal
  • 4. Experimental Inadequate Fidelity Focal
  • 5. Experimental Adequate Fidelity Focal
slide38

*

(Effect sizes > 1)

*

*

Group

slide39

+

■PPVT

+

p < .055

effect sizes = .7

+

p < .08

effect size = .5

grade retention
Grade retention
  • 10 children were retained in grade. No children from the experimental schools were retained. They were all in the control schools.
study 2 reading first

Study 2: Reading First

170 children in kindergarten and first grade

slide42

Year 1(non Reading First)

20 teachers

(n = 163)

Year 2 (Reading First)

24 teachers

(n = 170)

Kindergarten

1st Grade

Kindergarten

1st Grade

Experimental

Control

four groups of children
Four Groups of Children
  • 1. Control non-focal
  • 2. Control focal
  • 3. Experimental non-focal
  • 4. Experimental Focal
slide44

■WJ - Basic Reading

*

Effect size = .7

*

Group

slide45

*

Effect size = .7

*

Group

texas and new mexico n 358
Texas and New Mexicon = 358

Experimental

Control

web cam consultation in remote locations
Web cam consultation in Remote Locations
  • UNC Consultants can see and hear the teacher working with target children in real time so teachers get feedback immediately. Teachers can also see and hear the consultant in real time.
  • Consultants can attend grade level meetings via web cams. Teachers can see the consultant and the consultant can see the teachers.
  • Teachers can download information and training videos from the web
thank you

Thank You

Targeting instructional match in every interaction…