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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON ADAPTATION: Progress and Prospects. Ian Burton Co-Chair OEP-CCA. In collaboration with Thea Dickinson and Burton Dickinson Consulting Ltd. . TOPICS. 3 Messages; 2 Questions The Broad Tent The UNFCCC Tuvalu and Bangladesh

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international experience on adaptation progress and prospects

INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON ADAPTATION:Progress and Prospects

Ian Burton

Co-Chair OEP-CCA

In collaboration with Thea Dickinson and Burton Dickinson Consulting Ltd.

topics
TOPICS
  • 3 Messages; 2 Questions
  • The Broad Tent
  • The UNFCCC
  • Tuvalu and Bangladesh
  • International funding? Financial needs?
  • Copenhagen Agreement at COP 15. December 2009
  • European Adaptation Plans
  • United Kingdom
  • Canada and the Provinces
  • Integration
  • 3 messages; 2 questions
3 messages 2 questions
3 Messages, 2 Questions
  • M1. Climate Change Adaptation has lagged far behind mitigation
  • M2. Adaptation is not only a local issue: it has national strategic and international policy dimensions.
  • M3. Fragmentary, isolated initiatives can be useful but a strategic and integrated approach is needed.
  • Q1. How much can adaptation achieve? What will it cost? Benefit streams? Who pays?
  • Q2. What is an integrated and strategic approach? What are the links to sustainability?
the big tent
The Big Tent
  • All sectors:
    • Agriculture, Forests, Fisheries, Water, Health, Infrastructure, Insurance, Business and Commerce; due diligence, liability?
  • Many Risks:
    • Floods, Droughts, Tropical cyclones, Sea level rise; progressive desiccation
  • All levels of government; The private sector and civil society
the unfccc convention framework
The UNFCCC: Convention Framework
  • Climate Change = A Pollution Problem = Mitigate
  • But also adaptation (afterthought)
  • Mitigate now (KYOTO)
  • Adapt Later (But help the vulnerable where necessary)
  • Priority for adaptation: Small Island States; Least Developed and most Vulnerable Countries; all Developing Countries; European Countries; the Rest.
tuvalu
Tuvalu
  • World’s 4th smallest country
  • Population of 11,305
  • Made up of four reefs and five atolls
  • Stretches over 680 kilometres
  • The sea level rise predicted to occur as a result of climate change would make Tuvalu uninhabitable.
  • Solution proposed: Adaptation – Migration!
  • Relocate the population of Tuvalu to New Zealand
  • New Zealand agreeing to accept 75 evacuees annually.
bangladesh
Bangladesh
  • Built over the flood plains of four

major rivers: the Brahmaputra,

Meghna, Wange and Ganges Rivers.

  • Total population is over 150 Million
  • Threat of sea level rise, and cyclones and floods
  • Impossible for many to adapt in place and
  • Therefore – migrate inland or to India or to sea
  • Over 10 million refugees - perhaps 20, or more
  • New term: “Climate Refugees”
  • International implications
international funding
International Funding?
  • Agree to help the most vulnerable countries to meet costs of climate change adaptation.
  • Establishment of Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), ~$500 million total voluntary contributions so far.
international needs developing countries
International Needs: Developing Countries
  • Rough estimates in the order of several tens of billions of dollars annually, and increasing
  • New estimates of costs being made by World Bank and others
  • Questions:
    • Fund expansion
    • Polluter pays principle
    • Liability? Equity?
    • Sources and management of funds?
european countries
European Countries
  • Over 15 European Countries are in process or have implemented a National Adaptation Strategy
  • These include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom
  • Financial support primarily from governments in the range of hundreds of thousands to hundreds of millions of dollars (100K to > than 100M). Funding structures differ widely: whole strategy; in phases; by years; or by sectors
uk s climate change bill
UK’s Climate Change Bill
  • The UK is introducing a long-term legally binding framework to tackle climate change.
  • Introduced in Parliament on November 14th, 2007 with the aim to receive Royal Assent by autumn 2008.
  • Bill aims to achieve mandatory 60% cut in the UK's carbon emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), with an intermediate target of between 26% and 32% by 2020. If approved, the UK will become first country to set such a long-range requirement in law.
uk s cc bill adaptation included
UK’s CC Bill – Adaptation Included
  • UK wide climate change risk assessment every 5years
  • A national adaptation programme in place and reviewed
  • Government to require companies (utilities) to report how they assessed and will address CC risks
  • Government to provide guidance on how to undertake a climate risk assessment and draw up an adaptation action plan
  • Creation of an Adaptation Sub-Committee of the independent Committee on Climate Change to oversee progress
canada and the provinces
Canada and the Provinces
  • Federal facilitative approach
  • Provinces now beginning to act on adaptation
  • Piecemeal approach
  • No Federal Plan, Framework or Strategy
  • Provinces acting separately except some progress under COF
  • Municipalities beginning to act
integration
Integration
  • Need for a more integrated approach.
  • Local and Provincial initiatives needed, but not sufficient by themselves.
  • Too much subsidiarity?
  • Think (for agriculture, for example) of adaptive capacity, risks and opportunities, trade implications, links to mitigation, research and development, international responsibilities….
3 messages 2 questions15
3 Messages, 2 Questions
  • M1. Climate Change Adaptation has lagged far behind mitigation
  • M2. Adaptation is not only a local issue: national strategic and international policy dimensions.
  • M3. Fragmentary, isolated initiatives can be useful but a strategic and integrated approach is needed.
  • Q1. How much can adaptation achieve? What will it cost? Benefit streams? Who pays?
  • Q2. What is an integrated and strategic approach? What are the links to sustainability?
next steps
Next Steps?
  • Canada has a great capacity to adapt to climate change over the coming decades
  • Up to a certain level of climate change (+2 degrees?) Canada can even be a net beneficiary.
  • Adapt and Thrive!
  • How do we ensure that this happens and that we play a responsible role in global climate negotiations?
  • Meetings like this are among the first steps.
  • Much more is needed now.