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  1. Fundamental Digital Electronics (Fall 2013) Martino Poggio

  2. Hard disk drive (HDD) Introduced by IBM in 1956 Dominant form of secondary storage Pros: capacity, price, performance Cons: size, durability Fundamental Digital Electronics

  3. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  4. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  5. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  6. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  7. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  8. Hard disk drive (HDD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  9. HDDs in the last 30 years Capacity: 3.75 MB  4 TB Volume: refrigerator  20 mL Weight: 910 kg  48 g Density: 2 kbit/in2  600 Gbit/in2 Price: 15k USD/MB  0.0001 USD/MB Access time: 100 ms  3 ms Fundamental Digital Electronics

  10. Millipede Memory Fundamental Digital Electronics

  11. Millipede Memory: Concept Store bits as high density “divots” in a polymer film Use many nanoscopic cantilever tips in parallel to read and write Achieve stability of HDD and speed of DRAM… Fundamental Digital Electronics

  12. Millipede Memory: Read Read: probe tip heated to 300 C, and moved over data point; measure temperature of the canitlever; if there is a divot, heat will leak from the tip quickly; if not. heat will leak slowly. Fundamental Digital Electronics

  13. Millipede Memory: Write Write “1”: probe tip heated to 400 C (above glass transition) and pushed into the surface; tip pulled away after cooling. Write “0”: prove tip heated to 400 C and pushed into the surface; tip pulled away still hot, allowing surface tension to pull the surface flat. Fundamental Digital Electronics

  14. Millipede Memory Fundamental Digital Electronics

  15. Millipede Memory Fundamental Digital Electronics

  16. Millipede as of 2005 Density: 800 Gbit/in2 64 x 64 cantilevers Pit size: 10-20 nm Fundamental Digital Electronics

  17. Flash Memory (SSD) • Introduced by Toshiba ca. 1980 • Growing form of secondary storage • Pros: size, durability (no moving parts!), power consumption, speed • Cons: capacity, long-term reliability, price Fundamental Digital Electronics

  18. Flash Memory (SSD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  19. Flash Memory (SSD) Fundamental Digital Electronics

  20. Flash Memory (SSD) • Memory wear: 1k – 1M cycles… and improving • Read disturb • Capacity: 256 GB in 2012… • Faster at reading than writing Fundamental Digital Electronics

  21. Flash Memory (SSD) Fundamental Digital Electronics