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Grammar Review. Clause vs. Phrase. Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own. Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.

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clause vs phrase
Clause vs. Phrase
  • Clause: A group of related words with both a subject and a verb. May or may not be able to stand on its own.
  • Phrase: A group of related words without both a subject or a verb. Acts as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Cannot stand on its own.
clause types
Clause Types
  • Independent Clause: She is older than her brother.
  • Dependent Clause: Because she is older than her brother, she has to watch him sometimes.
    • A word called a “subordinating conjunction” introduces a dependent clause.
phrase vs dependent clause
Phrase vs. Dependent Clause
  • Both phrases and dependent clauses cannot stand alone.
  • However, dependent clauses must have a subject and a verb, while phrases can only have one.
  • Also, dependent clauses start with subordinating conjunctions, while phrases do not.
common subordinating conjunctions
Common subordinating conjunctions
  • after
  • although
  • as
  • as if
  • as long as
  • as though
  • because
  • before
  • even if
  • even though
  • if
  • if only
  • in order that
  • now that
  • once
  • rather than
  • since
  • so that
  • than
  • that
  • though
  • till
  • unless
  • until
  • when
  • whenever
  • where
  • whereas
  • wherever
  • while
phrases that act like nous
Phrases that act like nous
  • Simple noun phrases
    • Noun + modifiers
    • (Can be a subject, object of a verb, or object of a preposition).
      • Examples: A very tired Thomas looked for his blue shirt. The substitute teacher taught all of the kindergarteners today.
  • Gerund phrases
    • Gerund (verb + -ing) + modifiers
      • Example: She began thinking about her life.
  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)
    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers
      • Example: He likes to play soccer.
write three sentences use each kind of noun phrase and underline it
Write three sentences. Use each kind of noun phrase and underline it.
  • Simple noun phrase
  • Gerund phrase
  • Infinitive phrase
phrases that act like adjectives
Phrases that act like adjectives
  • Simple adjective phrases
    • Adjective + modifiers
      • Example: He was wearing his nice red shirt.
  • Participial phrases
    • Participle + modifiers
      • Example: The children, needing guidance, asked for help.
  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)
    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers
      • Example: The man on the roof tried not to fall.
  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)
    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers
      • Example: Her plan to win student council president was a good one.
write 4 sentences include each type of adjective phrase and underline it
Write 4 sentences, include each type of adjective phrase, and underline it.
  • Simple adjective phrases
  • Participial phrases
  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)
  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)
phrases that act like adverbs
Phrases that act like adverbs
  • Prepositional phrases (sometimes)
    • Preposition + object of the preposition + modifiers
      • Example: The babysitter shouted in a loud voice.
  • Infinitive phrases (sometimes)
    • Infinitive (to + verb) + modifiers
      • Example: He yelled to warn everyone about the broken glass.
write two sentences with adverb phrases underline each
Write two sentences with adverb phrases, underline each
  • Prepositional phrase (sometimes)
  • Infinitive phrase (sometimes)
phrases that act like verbs
Phrases that act like verbs
  • Verb phrase
    • Verb (+helping verb, sometimes) + all modifiers
    • (It’s the predicate of the sentence.)
      • Examples: She has been studying for three hours. Thomas wrote an excellent essay.
absolute phrases
Absolute Phrases
  • Modify (give information about) the entire sentence.
    • Noun or pronoun + participle + modifiers
    • Resembles a clause, but its verb can’t stand alone (it is not a “finite” verb)
      • Examples: Her eyes on the clock, Lisa waited for her shift to end. He looked different, his face expressing worry.
sentence types
Sentence Types
  • Simple: Subject + Verb (Independent Clause)
  • Compound: Two Independent Clauses joined by a Coordinating Conjunction
  • Complex: Independent Clause with one or more Dependent Clauses. Always has a Subordinating Conjunction or Relative Pronoun.
  • Compound-Complex: Two Independent Clauses and one or more Dependent Clauses.
sentence types1
Sentence Types
  • Simple: Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.
  • Compound: Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.
  • Complex: When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.
  • Compound-complex: The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.
break it down
Break it down!
  • Some students prefer to do their homework in the morning.
    • This is an independent clause. It has a subject (students) and a verb (prefer), and it can stand alone.
    • It is made up of many phrases!
      • noun phrases (some students) (their homework)
      • verb phrase (prefer to do their homework in the morning)
      • infinitive phrase that acts like a noun because it is the object of a verb (to do their homework)
      • prepositional phrase (in the morning)
simple sentence
Simple sentence
  • Write your own simple sentence. Circle the subject and underline the verb.
break it down1
Break it down!
  • Tina had to work tonight, but Alex took the night off.
    • This sentence has two independent clauses. Each has a subject (Tina/Alex) and a verb (had/took).
    • It is made of many phrases!
      • Verb phrases (had to work tonight/took the night off)
      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “had” (to work tonight)
      • Noun phrase because it is the object of the verb “took” (the night off)
compound sentence
Compound sentence
  • Write your own compound sentence
  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs
break it down2
Break it down!
  • When he finished his work, he forgot to put his name on it.
    • This sentence has a dependent clause (subject: he. verb: handed. subordinating conjunction: when).
    • It also has an independent clause (subject: he. verb: forgot)
    • It is made up of phrases!
      • Verb phrases (finished his work/forgot to put his name on it)
      • Infinitive phrase acting as a noun because it is the object of the verb “forgot” (to put his name on it)
      • Prepositional phrase acting as an adverb because it answers the question “what” (on it)
complex sentence
Complex sentence
  • Write your own complex sentence
  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs
break it down3
Break it down!
  • The animal was scared, but it was also angry, since it had been cornered.
    • This sentence has two independent clauses and one dependent clause. Subjects: animal/it/it. Verbs: was/was/had been.
    • It is made up of verb phrases: was scared/was also angry/had been cornered.
compound complex sentence
Compound-complex sentence
  • Write your own compound-complex sentence.
  • Circle the subjects and underline the verbs.
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