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Slavery

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  1. Slavery Chapter 9

  2. Nat Turner • Virginia, 1831 • Nat Turner • Slave, preacher • Believed God had chosen him to free slaves • Turner and followers killed 55 whites • 100 blacks slaughtered in the effort to capture Turner • 1831 (December) – Jefferson’s grandson presents plan for gradual emancipation in Virginia General Assembly (Vote – 73 to 82)

  3. Toussaint L’Ouverture • Santo Domingo (Haiti) • L’Ouverture • Brilliant, self-educated • Leads successful slave revolt • 60,000 dead as a result • Americans FEAR a slave revolt… and slavery gets MORE BRUTAL

  4. Southern views on slavery • 1 in 4 own slaves • 1 of 7 slave owners possesses more than 10 slavers • Most southerners are small farmers, but rich plantation owners dominate politics • Sen. John C. Calhoun – “slavery is a positive good… the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world.” • Albert Gallatin Brown – “slavery is a blessing for the slave, and a blessing to the master.” • By 1850 – 30,000 fugitive slaves in the North worth about $15 million (Anthony Burns – captured in 1854 in Boston and returned to slavery

  5. John Brown’s Body Chapter 10

  6. John Brown • 1856 – Civil War in “Bloody” Kansas • In may, John Brown and others murder 5 proslavery Kansans • Believed he was acting for God • 1859 – Harper’s Ferry • John and 21 followers attempt to ignite a slave revolt • Captured and executed (see pages 57 and 58)

  7. Lincoln’s Problem Chapter 11

  8. Secession • South Carolina – first • Mississippi – one of richest states (Millionaires of Natchez) • Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas • 7 quickly secede to start • Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee follow after Lincoln calls for volunteers to fight

  9. Preparing for WAR • Richmond (capital of South, industrial center) – exciting place with all war preparations (dreamlike… only thinking of the glory of war) • West Virginia secedes from Virginia • Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware – border, slave states that stay with Union

  10. Free Slaves or Not? • Abolitionists want Lincoln to free slaves • Lincoln doesn’t want to anger border states • Lincoln says… freeing slaves, losing war, and destroying Union will help NO ONE (slaves or not)

  11. North Advantages • More men • 23 states vs. 11 states • 22 million vs. 9 million (population) • Almost 3 million soldiers to 1.5 million • More industry • More railroads • More food • LINCOLN

  12. Southern Advantages • Do not have to conquer anyone • Can play defense • Cause? – liberty from government, maintain way of “southern life” • Skilled fighters • Used to shooting and riding, outdoors • Better military leadership

  13. Fort Sumter • April 1861 • Lincoln wants to resupply fort • Confederates take the fort • PGT Beauregard

  14. The Union Generals Chapter 12

  15. Winfield Scott • First General in charge • Old, terrible shape… still sharp • Knew it would take a few years to win • Old Fuss and Feathers • Plan: • Blockade southern ports • Control Mississippi River • Send armies from east and west to squeeze Confederacy (Anaconda Plan)

  16. George B. McClellan • West Point graduate, age 35 • Excellent organizer • Need to feed, house, equip MANY • PROBLEM – hesitant to fight

  17. Lincoln tries more… • Fremont • Burnside • Halleck • Hooker • Pope • Meade • Then….

  18. Ulysses S. Grant • West Point • Mexican War • Inherited slave… ??? • GOOD at FIGHTING • “Unconditional Surrender” • WINNING in WEST • Outkill and Outlast!

  19. The Confederate Generals Chapter 13

  20. Southern Generals • Soldiering tradition in South • James Longstreet • Old Pete or Old War Horse • J.E.B. Stuart… “the eyes and ears” • One of most daring cavalry leaders • Gettysburg error ??? • George Picket • Friendly, well-like • “Picket’s Charge” at Gettysburg

  21. Southern Generals • Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson • West Point, VMI instructor • Strict, intelligent, daring, fearless • A WINNER… even when he shouldn’t • Very religious • What happened to him?

  22. Southern Generals • Robert E. Lee • West Point • Did not want Union to dissolve • Had to fight for Virginia • Born leader… Jackson would follow him “blindfolded” • WINNER… risk taker, genius

  23. President Davis’s Problems Chapter 14

  24. The Problems… • Not enough food, clothing (shoes), weapons, ships • Poor railroads • Surplus of cotton in England • No need to interfere with Union blockade • English opposed slavery • Confederate states acting independently • Cannot get tax $ from them • Davis couldn’t communicate like Lincoln

  25. Choosing Sides Chapter 15

  26. War splits nation and families • Clifton brothers – both die at Petersburg, fighting on opposite sides • 4 of Lincoln’s brother-in-laws fight for Confederacy (3 died) • Henry Clay’s grandsons… 3 for Union and 4 for Confederacy • JEB Stuart… Chased by father-in-law • ETC. • WHY fight for the North? Why South? • North – read box on 77, South – their way

  27. Did the war make a difference? • Yes… • Ended Slavery • Preserved Union • U.S. committed to democracy through constitutional amendments that promoted fairness (equal opportunity) • HOWEVER… easier to change laws than to change ideas and habits • Tyranny and persecution and bigotry are forbidden by the Constitution (un-American!)

  28. The Soldiers • Median age – 24 • Many were 18 or 19 • Johnny Clem (11) • Confederate Colonel tried to take him prisoner • He killed the Colonel and was made a sergeant • Eventually, government had to pay cash rewards for volunteers… and both sides had to draft

  29. Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight… • Confederates that owned 20 or more slaves did not have to serve (some fought anyway) • Northerners could pay someone else to fight if they could afford it • Many were farmers… small-town boys… most were never far from home • Most signed up for an exciting adventure… but what did they get???

  30. War is NOT fun… • Long marches • Disease • Homesickness • Bad food • Hunger • Long, boring encampments • For every man that died in battle, two died of sickness

  31. Weapons • Sharps rifle – breech-loading, single-shot • Spencer seven-shot – best repeating rifle • Gatling – machine gun, 250 rounds per minute • MOST soldiers use muzzle loading rifle • New weapons are much better…. More accurate, shoot farther… KILL better • Fight with old-school tactics using new weapons… MANY die as a result

  32. Weapons • Hot air balloons… for spying • Submarine… it worked… but not well • This was the first “modern” war… • No “by-the-rules” orderly skirmish • TOTAL WAR • In the “old” days… attackers had advantage… now… defenders are winning

  33. Willie and TadThe point? Chapter 17

  34. General McClellan’s Campaign Chapter 18

  35. McClellan • Takes charge after Bull Run • Brings order and pride… DRILLS • Organized 100,000 men • 2,500 supply wagons • 300 cannons • 25,000 animals • 600 tons of supplies used each day!

  36. McClellan • Wants to take Richmond (capital and industrial center) • Attack by boat – Virginia Peninsula (see map on 91) • MUD – difficult to move troops and supplies • Time for Confederates to prepare • Magruder – marching troops all over the place to trick McClellan… it works… moves slower • Seven Days Battle is tough on both sides • Union retreats eventually

  37. Chancellorsville • Stonewall is accidentally wounded by friendly fire • Lee says, “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm.”

  38. War at Sea Chapter 19

  39. Blockade • Union wants to isolate the south… only has 90 ships to do it • Confederates have no navy • By time war ends, Union has 700 ships in service • Confederates get English to build fast cruisers that can outrun blockade and attack Union merchant ships

  40. Iron stronger than wood • Confederates raised the sunken Merrimack and it becomes the Virginia • Big, slow, clumsy, and STRONG • Creates FEAR in Washington… a super-ship • Monitor is built and ships meet at Hampton Roads • Neither ship can sink the other… war has changed at sea forever

  41. Admiral David Farragut • Takes New Orleans with his fleet… passing two Confederate forts that did everything to stop him… • See the BOX on page 97

  42. Emancipation Means Freedom Chapter 20

  43. Antietam (Sharpsburg)… 9/17/62 • Why should McClellan have been able to crush Lee? • Bloodiest day of the war… 23,000 dead • What happened after the battle… or what didn’t happen? • See page 99 – Lincoln’s visit to McClellan • Clara Barton – the Angel of the Battlefield

  44. Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln reads it in September of 1862 • January 1, 1863, it becomes official • What is the impact of this? • Douglas – “lift the war into the dignity of a war for progress and civilization” • Lincoln signs his full name… not just A. Lincoln

  45. Determined Soldiers Chapter 21

  46. Contrabands • Property seized by the enemy • They want to FIGHT! • 54th Massachusetts • Led by Colonel Robert G. Shaw • Bayonet attack at Fort Wagner (Charleston Harbor) • Half are wounded, captured or killed • Captured white officers that led blacks would have been put to death as criminals • Blacks would be sold into slavery • 180,000 black soldiers fight for the Union

  47. Marching Soldiers Chapter 22

  48. Hardtack • Armies CONSUME!! • Wood… or furniture, books, whatever else to burn • Could take your home for their use • Could take your vegetables and meat (animals from your farm) • Live on flour, coffee, bacon, “hardtack” • Total War – make enemy civilians suffer

  49. War in the South • Most of the fighting is in the South… VA • South is being destroyed • Peace movements in North… tired of war • Lee wants a big win in the NORTH!!! • Stopped at Antietam in September of 1862 • Confident after victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville (early summer of 1863) • Lee heads for Pennsylvania… George Meade and Union army head after Confederates