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Slavery. Chapter 9. Nat Turner. Virginia, 1831 Nat Turner Slave, preacher Believed God had chosen him to free slaves Turner and followers killed 55 whites 100 blacks slaughtered in the effort to capture Turner

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Slavery


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Slavery Chapter 9

    2. Nat Turner • Virginia, 1831 • Nat Turner • Slave, preacher • Believed God had chosen him to free slaves • Turner and followers killed 55 whites • 100 blacks slaughtered in the effort to capture Turner • 1831 (December) – Jefferson’s grandson presents plan for gradual emancipation in Virginia General Assembly (Vote – 73 to 82)

    3. Toussaint L’Ouverture • Santo Domingo (Haiti) • L’Ouverture • Brilliant, self-educated • Leads successful slave revolt • 60,000 dead as a result • Americans FEAR a slave revolt… and slavery gets MORE BRUTAL

    4. Southern views on slavery • 1 in 4 own slaves • 1 of 7 slave owners possesses more than 10 slavers • Most southerners are small farmers, but rich plantation owners dominate politics • Sen. John C. Calhoun – “slavery is a positive good… the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world.” • Albert Gallatin Brown – “slavery is a blessing for the slave, and a blessing to the master.” • By 1850 – 30,000 fugitive slaves in the North worth about $15 million (Anthony Burns – captured in 1854 in Boston and returned to slavery

    5. John Brown’s Body Chapter 10

    6. John Brown • 1856 – Civil War in “Bloody” Kansas • In may, John Brown and others murder 5 proslavery Kansans • Believed he was acting for God • 1859 – Harper’s Ferry • John and 21 followers attempt to ignite a slave revolt • Captured and executed (see pages 57 and 58)

    7. Lincoln’s Problem Chapter 11

    8. Secession • South Carolina – first • Mississippi – one of richest states (Millionaires of Natchez) • Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas • 7 quickly secede to start • Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee follow after Lincoln calls for volunteers to fight

    9. Preparing for WAR • Richmond (capital of South, industrial center) – exciting place with all war preparations (dreamlike… only thinking of the glory of war) • West Virginia secedes from Virginia • Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware – border, slave states that stay with Union

    10. Free Slaves or Not? • Abolitionists want Lincoln to free slaves • Lincoln doesn’t want to anger border states • Lincoln says… freeing slaves, losing war, and destroying Union will help NO ONE (slaves or not)

    11. North Advantages • More men • 23 states vs. 11 states • 22 million vs. 9 million (population) • Almost 3 million soldiers to 1.5 million • More industry • More railroads • More food • LINCOLN

    12. Southern Advantages • Do not have to conquer anyone • Can play defense • Cause? – liberty from government, maintain way of “southern life” • Skilled fighters • Used to shooting and riding, outdoors • Better military leadership

    13. Fort Sumter • April 1861 • Lincoln wants to resupply fort • Confederates take the fort • PGT Beauregard

    14. The Union Generals Chapter 12

    15. Winfield Scott • First General in charge • Old, terrible shape… still sharp • Knew it would take a few years to win • Old Fuss and Feathers • Plan: • Blockade southern ports • Control Mississippi River • Send armies from east and west to squeeze Confederacy (Anaconda Plan)

    16. George B. McClellan • West Point graduate, age 35 • Excellent organizer • Need to feed, house, equip MANY • PROBLEM – hesitant to fight

    17. Lincoln tries more… • Fremont • Burnside • Halleck • Hooker • Pope • Meade • Then….

    18. Ulysses S. Grant • West Point • Mexican War • Inherited slave… ??? • GOOD at FIGHTING • “Unconditional Surrender” • WINNING in WEST • Outkill and Outlast!

    19. The Confederate Generals Chapter 13

    20. Southern Generals • Soldiering tradition in South • James Longstreet • Old Pete or Old War Horse • J.E.B. Stuart… “the eyes and ears” • One of most daring cavalry leaders • Gettysburg error ??? • George Picket • Friendly, well-like • “Picket’s Charge” at Gettysburg

    21. Southern Generals • Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson • West Point, VMI instructor • Strict, intelligent, daring, fearless • A WINNER… even when he shouldn’t • Very religious • What happened to him?

    22. Southern Generals • Robert E. Lee • West Point • Did not want Union to dissolve • Had to fight for Virginia • Born leader… Jackson would follow him “blindfolded” • WINNER… risk taker, genius

    23. President Davis’s Problems Chapter 14

    24. The Problems… • Not enough food, clothing (shoes), weapons, ships • Poor railroads • Surplus of cotton in England • No need to interfere with Union blockade • English opposed slavery • Confederate states acting independently • Cannot get tax $ from them • Davis couldn’t communicate like Lincoln

    25. Choosing Sides Chapter 15

    26. War splits nation and families • Clifton brothers – both die at Petersburg, fighting on opposite sides • 4 of Lincoln’s brother-in-laws fight for Confederacy (3 died) • Henry Clay’s grandsons… 3 for Union and 4 for Confederacy • JEB Stuart… Chased by father-in-law • ETC. • WHY fight for the North? Why South? • North – read box on 77, South – their way

    27. Did the war make a difference? • Yes… • Ended Slavery • Preserved Union • U.S. committed to democracy through constitutional amendments that promoted fairness (equal opportunity) • HOWEVER… easier to change laws than to change ideas and habits • Tyranny and persecution and bigotry are forbidden by the Constitution (un-American!)

    28. The Soldiers • Median age – 24 • Many were 18 or 19 • Johnny Clem (11) • Confederate Colonel tried to take him prisoner • He killed the Colonel and was made a sergeant • Eventually, government had to pay cash rewards for volunteers… and both sides had to draft

    29. Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight… • Confederates that owned 20 or more slaves did not have to serve (some fought anyway) • Northerners could pay someone else to fight if they could afford it • Many were farmers… small-town boys… most were never far from home • Most signed up for an exciting adventure… but what did they get???

    30. War is NOT fun… • Long marches • Disease • Homesickness • Bad food • Hunger • Long, boring encampments • For every man that died in battle, two died of sickness

    31. Weapons • Sharps rifle – breech-loading, single-shot • Spencer seven-shot – best repeating rifle • Gatling – machine gun, 250 rounds per minute • MOST soldiers use muzzle loading rifle • New weapons are much better…. More accurate, shoot farther… KILL better • Fight with old-school tactics using new weapons… MANY die as a result

    32. Weapons • Hot air balloons… for spying • Submarine… it worked… but not well • This was the first “modern” war… • No “by-the-rules” orderly skirmish • TOTAL WAR • In the “old” days… attackers had advantage… now… defenders are winning

    33. Willie and TadThe point? Chapter 17

    34. General McClellan’s Campaign Chapter 18

    35. McClellan • Takes charge after Bull Run • Brings order and pride… DRILLS • Organized 100,000 men • 2,500 supply wagons • 300 cannons • 25,000 animals • 600 tons of supplies used each day!

    36. McClellan • Wants to take Richmond (capital and industrial center) • Attack by boat – Virginia Peninsula (see map on 91) • MUD – difficult to move troops and supplies • Time for Confederates to prepare • Magruder – marching troops all over the place to trick McClellan… it works… moves slower • Seven Days Battle is tough on both sides • Union retreats eventually

    37. Chancellorsville • Stonewall is accidentally wounded by friendly fire • Lee says, “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm.”

    38. War at Sea Chapter 19

    39. Blockade • Union wants to isolate the south… only has 90 ships to do it • Confederates have no navy • By time war ends, Union has 700 ships in service • Confederates get English to build fast cruisers that can outrun blockade and attack Union merchant ships

    40. Iron stronger than wood • Confederates raised the sunken Merrimack and it becomes the Virginia • Big, slow, clumsy, and STRONG • Creates FEAR in Washington… a super-ship • Monitor is built and ships meet at Hampton Roads • Neither ship can sink the other… war has changed at sea forever

    41. Admiral David Farragut • Takes New Orleans with his fleet… passing two Confederate forts that did everything to stop him… • See the BOX on page 97

    42. Emancipation Means Freedom Chapter 20

    43. Antietam (Sharpsburg)… 9/17/62 • Why should McClellan have been able to crush Lee? • Bloodiest day of the war… 23,000 dead • What happened after the battle… or what didn’t happen? • See page 99 – Lincoln’s visit to McClellan • Clara Barton – the Angel of the Battlefield

    44. Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln reads it in September of 1862 • January 1, 1863, it becomes official • What is the impact of this? • Douglas – “lift the war into the dignity of a war for progress and civilization” • Lincoln signs his full name… not just A. Lincoln

    45. Determined Soldiers Chapter 21

    46. Contrabands • Property seized by the enemy • They want to FIGHT! • 54th Massachusetts • Led by Colonel Robert G. Shaw • Bayonet attack at Fort Wagner (Charleston Harbor) • Half are wounded, captured or killed • Captured white officers that led blacks would have been put to death as criminals • Blacks would be sold into slavery • 180,000 black soldiers fight for the Union

    47. Marching Soldiers Chapter 22

    48. Hardtack • Armies CONSUME!! • Wood… or furniture, books, whatever else to burn • Could take your home for their use • Could take your vegetables and meat (animals from your farm) • Live on flour, coffee, bacon, “hardtack” • Total War – make enemy civilians suffer

    49. War in the South • Most of the fighting is in the South… VA • South is being destroyed • Peace movements in North… tired of war • Lee wants a big win in the NORTH!!! • Stopped at Antietam in September of 1862 • Confident after victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville (early summer of 1863) • Lee heads for Pennsylvania… George Meade and Union army head after Confederates