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CCSDS Security WG - . I. Aguilar, D. Fischer CCSDS Fall 2012 Meeting, Cleveland, USA 15/10/2012. Motivation.

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ccsds security wg

CCSDS Security WG -

I. Aguilar, D. FischerCCSDS Fall 2012 Meeting, Cleveland, USA15/10/2012

  • The objective of this presentation is to share information concerning recent ESA activities and participation to conferences and workshops which is deemed relevant to the CCSDS Security Working Group.
    • Information.
    • Discussion of possible new areas for work.
  • Physical Layer Security (IAS).
  • Ongoing Key Management Research at ESA-University of Waterloo (IAS/DF).
  • Directions in Authenticated Ciphers (DIAC 2012 Workshop) - Debriefing (IAS/DF).
  • ESTEL 2012 Conference - Debriefing (IAS).
  • SpaceOps 2012 Conference – Debriefing (DF).
physical layer security cryptographic spread spectrum 1
Physical Layer SecurityCryptographic spread spectrum (1)
  • As part of a general effort to strengthen TT&C links against denial-of-service attacks (jamming), ESA initiated research on two specific topics:
    • Cryptographic sequences to be applied on spread spectrum communications with multiple-user access capability and
    • Advanced synchronization techniques able to acquire such ultra-long codes under signal dynamic conditions (Doppler, jerk) experienced by various missions topologies as well as under stress (jamming).
  • Such research was funded with an activity of the ESA Technology Research Programme (TRP). Thales Alenia Space (Italy), a leading European supplier of ‘robust’ transponders, teamed up with Prof. J. Massey, a well-known authority on both pseudo-noise sequences and cryptography.
physical layer security cryptographic spread spectrum 2
Physical Layer SecurityCryptographic spread spectrum (2)
  • The research effort delivered good results. A family of pseudo-noise sequences that can provide both cryptographic strength and controlled cross-correlation, vital for multi-user access was identified.
  • Cryptographic Pseudo-Noise Sequences:
    • LetPNCRbe the cryptographically strong1 PN sequence that is assigned to every satellite.
    • LetPNMA(i)be the periodic1 PN spreading sequence whose first period corresponds to the phase of the maximal-length sequence that is assigned to theithsatellite.
    • Spreading sequencePN(i)used by the G/S for transmission to theithsatellite is the Hadamard productof PNCRand PNMA(i), i.e.,

PN(i) = PNCRPNMA(i).

physical layer security cryptographic spread spectrum 3
Physical Layer SecurityCryptographic spread spectrum (3)
  • Furthermore, techniques to quickly synchronize very long PN sequences were identified, analysed and evaluated.
    • Those techniques, based on frequency-domain signal processing algorithms (Generalized Zero Padding), have improved several orders of magnitude the performance compared with classical serial search techniques.
    • In combination with a clever 3-step acquisition protocol, they allow to transit from an already long PN sequence (2exp 22) to a cryptographic sequence in a few seconds.
  • Some details of the acquisition technique can be found on the following paper presented at MILCOM 2011.
    • Fast acquisition techniques for very long PN codes for On-Board Secure TTC transponders, L. Simone, G.Fittipaldi, I. Aguilar Sánchez.
physical layer security advanced tc coding 1
Physical Layer SecurityAdvanced TC Coding (1)
  • CCSDS Telecommand SpaceLink Protocol employs BCH code either in TED (triple error detection) or SED (single error correction) modes.
    • High integrity;
    • Somewhat limited coding gain;
    • Average White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel.
  • Such BCH codes are sub-optimal for spread spectrum modulations.
    • Poor performance under jamming, which produces burst errors.
  • Enhancement for cryptographic direct-sequence spread-spectrum modulation highly desirable.
    • Potential to increase robustness under interference/jamming.
  • Concatenation of convolutional (r=1/2, K=7) existing for a while in systems like TDRSS and used in missions like ATV
    • Improvement under AWGN condition;
    • Still too sensitive to burst errors.
physical layer security advanced tc coding 2
Physical Layer SecurityAdvanced TC Coding (2)
  • Can better codes be found to complement cryptographic direct-sequence spread-spectrum modulation?
    • Consider the particular requirements of TC protocol like the ability to encode from short (64 octets) to relatively large (1024 octets) blocks of data;
    • Consider most destructive jamming signals for direct-sequence modulation (e.g. pulsed jammer);
    • Consider coding literature;
    • Consider relevant CCSDS experience.
  • A study with Politecnico di Torino (Italy) and Univ. Politecnicadelle Marche (Italy) just initiated in September 2012.
    • Team has very strong record both on coding and CCSDS;
    • Targets mainly Binary Low Density Parity Check Codes (LDPC);
    • Considers as well NASA LDPC codes proposed for TC (in AWGN condition) but under jamming environment.
physical layer security secret channels
Physical Layer SecuritySecret channels
  • C. Shannon, the father of Information Theory, among other key works established the foundations of secret channel capacity;
  • A.D. Wynerbuilds on previous Shannon work on secret channels and produces another seminal paper
    • The Wire-Tap Channel, Bell System Technical Journal, 1975.
physical layer security why bother
Physical Layer SecurityWhy bother?
  • The design of proper ‘channel codes’ can increase the Rate of Equivocation (term defined by Shannon) of the eavesdropper;
  • In theory, no need for data encryption with such codes on a wireless channel!
    • Unbreakable, regardless of attacker’s computing power;
    • Mobile communications research community is very actively working on this subject;
    • Authentication also possible;
  • The cryptographers contender to quantum encryption, working on RF!
  • In the absence of my personal database on this topic (hard disk with all my files undergoing encryption at ESTEC!) present some slides from Vince Poor (Princeton) covering the topic.
on going key management research esa npi 1
On-going Key Management ResearchESA NPI (1)
  • ESA and the University of Waterloo (Canada) are working together on key management research for space missions under the ESA Network Partnering Initiative (NPI).
    • Each partner funds 50% of the research.
    • Research can be for a Ph.D. or post-doc.
  • Dr.MarcioJuliato (Univ. of Waterloo) is the lead researcher.
  • Project Co-supervisors:
    • Prof. Catherine H. Gebotys (Univ. of Waterloo);
    • I. Aguilar Sánchez (ESA/ESTEC).
  • Project Details:
    • Schedule:
      • 3-years, initiated summer 2011,
      • of which 1-year stay at ESTEC with visits to ESOC.
on going key management research esa npi 2
On-going Key Management ResearchESA NPI (2)
    • 3 Phases:
      • Phase 1, focusing on providing scientific basis for the determination of crypto periods for TC and TM secure communications links on space missions based on symmetric algorithms; 2 generic missions considered with GEO and LEO orbits;
      • Phase 2, looking at the use of trusted modules for key management/recovery;
      • Phase 3, investigating more complex mission topologies like those relying on space networks and the application of asymmetric algorithms to support key management.
  • Results of first phase:
    • Draft Technical Report produced;
    • Paper recently presented at IEEE AESS ESTEL 2012 Conference.
      • On the Specification of Symmetric Key Management Parameters for Secure Space Missions, MarcioJuliato, Catherine Gebotys, Ignacio Aguilar Sanchez.
directions in authenticated ciphers diac 2012 workshop 1
Directions in Authenticated Ciphers (DIAC 2012 Workshop) (1)
  • This workshop is part of ECRYPT, the European Network of Excellence in Cryptology; this is a network funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme.
  • This workshop gathered top cryptographers and practitioners in industry and academia like
    • B. Preneel, Univ. KatoliekLeuven (Belgium);
    • P. Rogaway, Univ. of California at Davis, USA;
    • J. Daemen, STM Microelectronics, AES father;
    • A, McGrew, CISCO, USA (AES-GCM father);
  • The following website provides relevant information:
  • ESA presented a ‘white paper’ with a view to inform the research community and possibly trigger their interest about the particular requirements, issues, constraints and concerns of authenticated encryption:
    • Authenticated encryption in civilian space missions: context and requirements, I. Aguilar Sánchez, D. Fischer
directions in authenticated ciphers diac 2012 workshop 2
Directions in Authenticated Ciphers (DIAC 2012 Workshop) (2)
  • Feedback:
    • Space considered a user community at one (tough) end of the spectrum of user requirements (T. Lange dixit);
    • At opposite end one can find the so-called ‘lightweight cryptography’ (e.g. embedded processors);
    • Some surprise shown by the anticipated need for a MAC longer than 128 bits (D. McGrew);
    • Doubt raised about the true security strength given by a particular MAC length, triggered by conversation with P. Rogaway; apparently a 128-bit MAC would give 128-bit security (not 64-bit); question still to be solved!
    • NIST and some top non-European Universities (USA, Japan) actively involved in the Workshop;
    • Possibly a new competition for an advanced AE algorithm in the pipeline; certainly, a lot of interest by represented parties; however, who would fund it?
estel 2012 conference
ESTEL 2012 Conference
  • See
  • Organised by IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society in Europe (a first!);
    • Broad scope: satellites, launchers, navigation, earth observation, ground systems, satellite networks,…
  • A Special Track on Security and Privacy…
    • Covering a broad range of security issues, well beyond space missions.
  • But a good Security Session in general program with papers like
    • Marcio’s paper on Key Management;
    • Cryptographic Transforms for a Lightweight and Efficient DVB Link-Layer Security Extension, Michael Nosterning, University of Salzburg;
    • Ignacio’s paper on Telecommunication Mission Security, including PR campaign for CCSDS Security!