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The Big 5. Lucas Nelson Ross Brandon Richard Severs. Overview. What are the Big 5? History Dimensions Criticisms Psychometric Properties Big 5 and Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Leadership. What are the Big Five?. Five broad dimensions of personality traits.

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the big 5

The Big 5

Lucas Nelson Ross

Brandon Richard Severs

  • What are the Big 5?
  • History
  • Dimensions
  • Criticisms
  • Psychometric Properties
  • Big 5 and Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Leadership
what are the big five
What are the Big Five?
  • Five broad dimensions of personality traits.
  • Five basic source traits that make up the fundamental building blocks of personality.
  • Collectively, a taxonomy of personality traits
  • A coordinate system that maps which traits go together.
  • Five trait clusters that are strongly internally correlated and not strongly correlated with one another.
history of big five
History of Big Five
  • Lexical Hypothesis assumes important human traits will be…
    • represented in all languages
    • have many nuanced synonyms
  • Allport and Odbert:
    • Went through an English-language dictionary and discovered more than 4,000 words that described specific personality traits.
  • Cattell:
    • Reduced 4,000 terms to about 171 characteristics
    • Used factor analysis to identify traits closely related to one another.
    • Eventually reduced his list to 16 key personality factors.
  • Eysenck:
    • Three dimensions
      • Introversion-extroversion
      • Neuroticism-emotional
      • Psychoticism
history of big five1
History of Big Five
  • Lew Goldberg coined the term “Big Five”.
  • Began with a study by Tupes and Christal (1958, 1961).
  • The Big Five structure was derived from statistical analyses of which traits tend to co-occur in people’s descriptions of themselves or other people.
    • A factor analysis was used to analyze how various personality traits are correlated in humans.
  • Costa and McCrae
    • Big Five Model
    • Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness.
  • The tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression
  • High
    • Anxiety
    • Self-consciousness
    • Depression
    • Vulnerability
    • Impulsiveness
    • Angry hostility
  • Low
    • Calm
    • Even-tempered
    • Unemotional
    • Hardy
  • Individuals high on Neuroticism have more bad feelings and psychological distress because…
    • Generate more stressful situations by getting into arguments, etc.
    • React more strongly negatively to stressful events.
    • Direct bad feelings associated with Neuroticism even without stressors.
  • Individuals have more psychosomatic symptoms, irritation, anger, and nervousness.
  • Characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others.
  • High
    • Gregariousness
    • Activity Level
    • Assertiveness
    • Excitement Seeking
    • Positive Emotions
    • Warmth
  • Low
    • Reserved
    • Loner
    • Quiet
  • More resistant to distraction, cognitive interference, and perform better on tasks requiring divided attention.
  • Its sociability is related to positive affect.
  • Impulsivity is related to negative affect
openness to experience
Openness to Experience
  • A general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience.
  • High
    • Fantasy
    • Aesthetics
    • Feelings
    • Ideas
    • Actions
    • Values
  • Low
    • Down-to-earth
    • Conventional
    • Uncreative
    • Prefer routine
openness to experience1
Openness to Experience
  • Alternately labeled culture, intelligence, openness.
  • High in very creative people.
  • Correlated with…
    • Active intelligence
    • Education
    • # of career changes
    • Aesthetic interests and sensitivity
    • Intellectual absorption
    • Broad values
  • Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
  • High
    • Straightforwardness
    • Trust
    • Altruism
    • Modesty
    • Tendermindedness
    • Compliance
  • Low
    • Aggressive
    • Ruthless
    • Suspicious
  • Includes altruism, affection, humaneness, sincerity
  • Most related to good parenting in mothers.
  • Tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement.
  • High
    • Self-discipline
    • Dutifulness
    • Competence
    • Order
    • Deliberation
    • Achievement striving
  • Low
    • Lazy
    • Aimless
    • Quitting
  • Most related to success across jobs and situations.
    • College level individuals high in Conscientiousness predicts job success years in the future
  • Related to good scores on integrity tests
criticisms of the big five
Criticisms of the Big Five
  • The model is theory-driven rather than determined by empirical inevitability.
  • The Big Five have repeatedly been found to be non-orthogonal and correlate with each other.
  • Cannot encompass all of human personality
  • Too Broad
  • Not enough clarity over what the factors actually mean
  • Does not make any advances in getting towards an understanding of what makes up personality.
criticisms of the big five1
Criticisms of the Big Five
  • Block (1995) suggests that the lexical hypothesis is a "psychologically insufficient" hypothesis, drawing on the observation of McCrae and Costa (1985) that psychologists have uncovered important aspects of personality that were not encoded in the language
  • There are many aspects of personality that cannot be captured with a single-word term
big 5 traits
Big 5 Traits
  • Because the Big 5 is so broad, there is some variation from study to study about the dimensions themselves and what they include
  • Question became “Which Big 5 should be used?” as different researchers simply preferred different labels in their research
  • As a result, a set of judges combined over 300 adjectives or traits to form the Adjective Check List
big 5 traits2
Big 5 Traits
  • In another study, certain clusters of personality traits were determined to be independent from a Big 5 dimension
  • Religious, devout, reverent = .07
  • Sexy, sensual, erotic = .13
  • Egotistical, conceited, snobbish = .16
  • Humorous, witty, amusing = .13
psychometric properties
Psychometric Properties
  • Because there are many scales that measure the Big 5, John and Srivastava (1991) looked at the validity and reliability of three commonly used instruments:
    • NEO-FFI
    • TDA
    • BFI
big 5 and job performance
Big 5 and Job Performance
  • Previous research concluded that personality tests had low validity for predicting job performance
  • In a meta-analysis by Barrick & Mount (1991), they compared the Big 5 dimensions to three job performance criteria and five occupational groups
  • The results indicated that only one dimension, conscientiousness, showed significant relationships between performance and the groups.
big 5 and job performance1
Big 5 and Job Performance
  • Validity for Conscientiousness was .2 which suggests the trait is important to the accomplishment of work tasks in all jobs
  • Extraversion was found to be a valid predictor for two occupations: managers and sales
  • Openness to experience dimension a valid predictor of training proficiency
big 5 and job satisfaction
Big 5 and Job Satisfaction
  • In a meta-analysis by Judge, Heller, and Mount (2002), they found moderate correlations of job satisfaction with Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness
big 5 and leadership
Big 5 and Leadership
  • Can having certain personality traits predict that an individual will be a leader?
  • Transformational leadership (TL) inspires followers with a vision beyond their own self-interest
  • Uses four dimensions:
    • Idealized influence
    • Inspirational motivation
    • Intellectual stimulation
    • Individual consideration
big 5 and leadership1
Big 5 and Leadership
  • Results show that correlation between Big and TL is .40 and the strongest dimension was agreeableness at .32
  • Support the construct of TL and generalizes across levels of organizations
  • Correlations between TL and leader effectiveness are not perfect though
big 5 and leadership2
Big 5 and Leadership
  • Study by Judge et al. (2002) studied the Big 5 traits and their relationship to leadership emergence and leadership success
  • They found extraversion and conscientiousness to be related to leadership emergence
  • Also, they found the Big 5 dimensions to be useful in predicting dispositional qualities of leadership, but there is little understanding as to why these traits predict leadership
big 5 and networking intensity
Big 5 and Networking Intensity
  • In a study by Wanberg, Kanfer, and Banas (2000), predicted individual differences in networking intensity
  • Participants completed items that assessed the term networking intensity
  • All dimensions correlated in some way with networking intensity and job-search intensity
  • Only Extraversion and Conscientiousness predicted networking intensity while the others were non-significant