Childhood psychiatric disorders. Dr. Y R Bhattarai TMU. Normal child development. What is growth and development ? - Process of growing to maturity.
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Dr. Y R Bhattarai
-Process of growing to maturity.
-Refers to process of biological and psychological changes in human being between birth and end of adolescence as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
newborn (ages 0–1 month)
infant (ages 1 month – 1 year)
toddler (ages 1–3 years)
preschooler (ages 4–6years)
school-aged child (ages 6–10 years)
adolescent (ages 11–19)
Includes capacity to learn, remember, recognise, solve problems and organize the environment.
Learn to develop sense of themselves so that they can think and relate their experiences in other situation.
Recognition and use of their emotions appropriately.
Learning concept of right and wrong
Process of learning to view themselves and others in terms of gender.
The basic mechanisms or causes of developmental change are genetic factors and environmental factors.
Genetic factors - responsible for cellular changes like overall growth, changes in proportion of body and brain parts, and the maturation of aspects of function such as vision and dietary needs.
Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences.
Rather than acting as independent mechanisms, genetic and environmental factors often interact to cause developmental change.
Term derived from Greek word – enourein-to void urine
Enuresis is defined as the involuntary or intentional voiding of urine.
-achievement of night time bowel continence
-achievement of day time bowel continence
-achievement of day time bladder continence
-At last achievement of night time bladder continence
Continence is said to be achieved if child is dry for 6mths to 1year
-Limit fluids before bedtime.
-Have your child go to the bathroom at the beginning of the bedtime routine and then again right before going to sleep.
-A reward system for dry nights.
-Asking your child to change the bed sheets when he or she wets.
-Bladder training: having your child practice holding his or her urine for longer and longer times during the day, in effort to stretch the bladder so it can hold more urine.
-Do not punish or ridicule the child for bedwetting as it may worsen the problem.
-Age appropriate behaviors
-Response to environmental problems
Combination of somatic and behavioral treatments.