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Case Western Reserve University. Forever Young Myths, Mysteries, and Mayhem in the University’s History. Richard Baznik Institute for the Study of the University in Society August 20, 2004. Approaching Two Centuries. 1800. 1825. 1850. 1875. 1900. 1925. 1950. 1975. 2000.

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case western reserve university
Case Western Reserve University

Forever Young

Myths, Mysteries, and Mayhem in the University’s History

Richard Baznik

Institute for the Study of the University in Society

August 20, 2004

slide2

Approaching Two Centuries

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

1967:Western Reserveand Case federate

to formCase Western ReserveUniversity

1826:

Western ReserveCollege foundedin Hudson

1880:

Case School of AppliedScience founded inDowntown Cleveland

Today

*

*

*

*

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

trends events in the nation and world
Trends/Events in the Nation and World

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

Abolitionist Movement

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Immigration + Migration

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

Baby Boom

D

D

D

D

@

D

D

D

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

Western Migration

Reconstruction

NewDeal

Cold War

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

pre history
Pre-History

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

Earlyimmigrantsto the areafromConnecticutand othereasternregions

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

slide5
The Western Reserve of ConnecticutInitially awarded to the Connecticut Colony by King Charles II in 1662; boundary refined in 1786

WesternReserve ofConnecticut

CT

OH

the western reserve of connecticut map by william sumner of nelson in portage county september 1826
The Western Reserve of ConnecticutMap by William Sumner of Nelson in Portage County, September 1826
finally a college for the western reserve
Finally, A College for the Western Reserve

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

*

WRC

Medicine

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

ending slavery abolition vs colonization town vs gown gown vs gown and town vs town in hudson
Ending Slavery: Abolition vs. ColonizationTown vs. Gown, Gown vs. Gown, and Town vs. Town in Hudson
diversity on the campus
Diversity on the Campus

John Sykes Fayette, Class of 1836, was the first African American student to enroll at Western Reserve College. He was an ardent abolitionist who later became a minister.

John Sykes Fayette, Class of 1836,shown years later with his wife.

social and economic strife
Social and Economic Strife

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

*

WRC

Medicine

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

slide11

Medical Education for WomenSix of the first seven women to earn medical degrees in the United Stateswere graduates of Western Reserve College’s Medical College of Cleveland.

Dr. ElizabethGrisellM.D., 1856

Dr. Nancy ETalbot Clark

M.D., 1852

Dr. Marie E.Zakrzewska,M.D., 1856

Dr. Cordelia A.GreeneM.D., 1856

Dr. EmilyBlackwellM.D., 1854

Not Pictured: Dr. Sarah A. Chadwick, M.D., 1856

growth and innovation
Growth and Innovation

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

*

CSAS

Move toUniv. Circle

“WRU”AdelbertC. for WomenLawDentistry

*

WRC

Medicine

Graduate Sch.

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

strong leadership for growth
Strong Leadership for Growth

AmasaStone

LeonardCase, Jr.

Flora StoneMather

Charles F.Thwing

case school of applied science
Case School of Applied Science
  • Leonard Case, Jr., a classically educated lawyer, endowed the region’s first technological school
  • He was a leader of the Arkites, area residents interested in natural history
  • School was started at the Case family homestead on Cleveland’s Public Square
  • Moved to University Circle next to WRU in 1886

Case Main Building, first structure onthe campus of the Case School ofApplied Science

slide15
Amasa Stone: Ashtabula Train DisasterIn December 1876, more than 80 people died when a Lake Shore and Michigan train bridge collapsed.
  • Investigation blamed bridge design, construction
  • Recent study faults fabrication of one component
  • Stone may have launched civic and philanthropic acts – including moving WRC to Cleveland – to atone
the education of women
The Education of Women
  • No formal provision for women students in undergraduate programs until 1872
  • After intense debate, coeducation ended in 1887
  • College for Young Women opened in 1888 -- Flora Stone Mather was a principal benefactor
  • “Flora Stone Mather College” (1931) absorbed into Western Reserve College in 1972

Viola Smith Buell,Class of 1876,

first woman to earnundergraduate degreefrom Western ReserveCollege

thwing a primal force
Thwing: A Primal Force
  • President for 31 years (1890-1921)
  • Developed WRU as a national graduate university committed to its city
  • Started several new schools and departments
  • Knew every student by his or her first name
  • Wrote more than 50 books
  • Co-founder of the NAACP
michelson and morley
Michelson and Morley

Edward W. MorleyWestern Reserve Chemist

Albert A. MichelsonCase Physicist

slide19
Michelson-Morley Experiment (1887)Disproved the prevailing theory that light waves traveled through a “lumeniferous aether”

Schematic drawing of Michelson-Morley Interferometer

good fences make
“Good Fences Make…”

Adelbert College (left) and Case Main Building, c. 1888

slide21
University Circle (when there was a circle)Postcard view of trolley turn-around in the Circle in the early 1900s

View looking southwest toward Western Reserve and Case

urban and international issues
Urban and International Issues

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

*

CSAS

Move toUniv. Circle

“WRU”AdelbertC. for WomenLawDentistry

Libr.Sci.

SASSNursing

*

WRC

Medicine

Graduate Sch.

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

slide23

“Rich as Rockefeller” – Or NotJohn D. Rockefeller, a Cleveland for several decades, was a generous donor tolocal charities, including Western Reserve and Case.

  • New York native; moved to Cleveland in his teens to work.
  • Founded Standard Oil Co. of Ohio in 1870 with other investors.
  • Devoted Baptist who directed his giving to address church’s priorities.
  • Moved back to New York in 1883. In 1887 gave funds to a small Baptist institution in Chicago that in 1890 became the University of Chicago.

John D. Rockefeller,from a 1917painting byJohn SingerSargent

slide24
When is a Gargoyle Just a Gargoyle?Legend has it that a gargoyle glares at Case from the tower of Amasa Stone Chapel.
  • Did WRU trustees want to show spite toward Leonard Case, Jr., who was an atheist?
  • Chapel was gift of two daughters of Amasa Stone, who would not have allowed spiteful action.
  • Designed by a Boston architect with no ties to local lore, politics.
  • Design based on a European church -- common to place a gargoyle on the west wall.
depression and renewal
Depression and Renewal

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

*

CSAS

“CIT”

Move toUniv. Circle

ClevelandCollege

“WRU”AdelbertC. for WomenLawDentistry

Libr.Sci.

SASSNursing

*

WRC

“Mather”

Medicine

Graduate Sch.

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

partisan spartan disliking viking
Partisan Spartan? Disliking Viking?
  • Tomlinson Hall (built by Case Institute in 1947) features this fellow over its main entrance.
  • Rumor: It’s a “Spartan” or “Viking” glaring eastward toward Adelbert College in return for the gargoyle on the chapel.
  • Architect: It’s “the Searcher, ever seeking new things in the world and in science…” (even, it seems, at Western Reserve University).

Seeking knowledge, not revenge.

meet gaston fafufnik cit 51
Meet Gaston Fafufnik, CIT ‘51
  • Local example of the perennial humor by upperclassmen: the incoming freshman
  • “Last of a long line of Fafufniks to matriculateat Case…”
  • “Gaston has diligently immersed himself in student activities…”
population and knowledge explosion
Population and Knowledge “Explosion”

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

Systems DesignJennings C. C.Study of Materials

*

CSAS

“CIT”

Move toUniv. Circle

*

ClevelandCollege

Federation

“WRU”AdelbertC. for WomenLawDentistry

Bus.Admin.

Libr.Sci.

SASSNursing

*

WRC

“Mather”

Medicine

Graduate Sch.

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

what is a federation
What is a “Federation?”

1967 merger of CIT, WRU:

  • Unprecedented in higher education
  • “Equal partnership” (thus the choice of language), but still highly emotional for many
  • Football teams merged in 1970 (competed until then)
  • Intense political, economic, demographic change

Editorial cartoon from The Plain Dealer,January 1966

a modern research university
A Modern Research University

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

Systems DesignJennings C. C.Study of Materials

*

CSAS

“CIT”

Move toUniv. Circle

CaseWesternReserveUniversity

*

ClevelandCollege

Federation

“WRU”AdelbertC. for WomenLawDentistry

Bus.Admin.

Libr.Sci.

SASSNursing

*

WRC

“Mather”

Medicine

Graduate Sch.

Cold War

Abolitionist Movement

Immigration + Migration

Space, Microelectronics,Molecular Biology….

Industrial Revolution ►►►► Urbanization

B. Boom

D

D

Reconstr’n

D

D

D

NewDeal

RightsMovements

Iron Ore

@

Western Migration

D

D

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000