Regulation of breathing movements
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Regulation of Breathing Movements. Breathing is controlled by the brain stem. Specifically the medulla oblongata. CO 2 levels are monitored in the medulla oblongata O 2 levels are monitored in the carotid and aortic bodies.

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Regulation of breathing movements
Regulation of Breathing Movements

  • Breathing is controlled by the brain stem. Specifically the medulla oblongata.

  • CO2 levels are monitored in the medulla oblongata

  • O2 levels are monitored in the carotid and aortic bodies.

  • Chemoreceptors are specialized receptors that are sensitive to specific chemicals.

Co 2 regulation
CO2 Regulation

  • Body cells use oxygen producing CO2. CO2 dissolves to become an acid.

  • Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata detect this increase in H+ and HCO3- and signal the diaphragm to increase breathing.

  • CO2 is expelled faster when breathing movements increase

Flow chart of o 2 control
Flow chart of O2 control

  • Low blood oxygen levels are detected in the aorta and carotid arteries

  • The CO2 control of breathing is the main control, but O2 control is a back-up

  • These two situations require the O2 back-up

Response to exercise
Response to Exercise

  • Alveoli ventilation can increase up to 20X with heavy exercise.

  • The three factors that cause an increase in breathing are decreased O2, increased CO2, and an increase in H+.

Co carbon monoxide
CO (Carbon Monoxide)

  • CO affects O2 levels by competing for a place on hemoglobin.

  • CO will bind to hemoglobin and remain there. Reducing the opportunity for O2 to be transported to tissues.

Respiratory disorders
Respiratory Disorders

  • Strep throat - Is an infection of the pharynx. - Caused by the bacteria streptococcal Bronchitis

  • Bronchitis - is an inflammation of the air passages between the nose and the lungs. It affects the trachea and the bronchi. - It is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

Respiratory disorders1
Respiratory Disorders

  • Asthma - is a long-lasting inflammatory disease of the airways in the human body. The inflammation causes the airways to narrow. This narrowing can produce wheezing and breathlessness. A severe asthma attack can be fatal.

    - the airways become especially sensitive to certain environmental conditions, such as cold air, dust mites, and pollen in the air.

Respiratory disorders2
Respiratory Disorders

  • Emphysema- It is generally caused by heavy cigarette smoking. Usually in people over the age of fifty. In the late 1990s, males are considered more likely to develop the disorder than females. However, that pattern has changed.

Respiratory disorders3
Respiratory Disorders

  • Pneumonia - Caused by the inhalation of infected microorganisms. The microorganisms enter the body through the mouth, nose and eyes.

    –If the body's resistance is down, the microorganisms are free to spread into the lungs and the lungs' air sacs.

    –The air sacs become filled with fluid and pus, making it more difficult for the body to get the oxygen it needs.

Respiratory disorders4
Respiratory Disorders

  • Pneumothorax - a condition in which air collects in the chest or the pleural space. (The pleural space is the space that surrounds the lungs.)

    – When a gas collects in the pleural space, it can cause part or all of a lung to collapse.

  • Lung cancer - First, cells begin to grow out of control in the body. Second, those cells have the ability to travel from their original site to other locations in the body. If the spread is not controlled, cancer can result in death.

    - Leading cause of lung cancer is smoking