the chemistry of life organic and biological chemistry n.
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The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry. BLB 11 th Chapter 25. 25.1 General Characteristics. Structure Carbon atoms form 4 bonds. Backbone consists of –C—C— chains or rings. C—H bond is nearly nonpolar. Stabilities C forms strong bonds with other elements.

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The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry


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25 1 general characteristics
25.1 General Characteristics
  • Structure
    • Carbon atoms form 4 bonds.
    • Backbone consists of –C—C— chains or rings.
    • C—H bond is nearly nonpolar.
  • Stabilities
    • C forms strong bonds with other elements.
    • Alkanes are stable (unreactive).
    • Functional groups (sect. 5) change reactivity.
general characteristics
General Characteristics
  • Solubility and acid-base properties
    • Hydrocarbons: nonpolar, neutral

soluble in water? ______

    • C—H (hydrocarbons) plus functional groups…
      • -C—O—H polar, slightly acidic (alcohols)
      • -C—O—O—H acidic (carboxylic acids)
      • -C—N—R3 basic (amines)
    • Surfactants combine both properties
25 2 hydrocarbons
25.2 Hydrocarbons
  • Compounds containing only C and H
  • Types:
    • Alkanes (saturated) – single C–C bonds
    • Alkenes (unsaturated) – double C=C bonds
    • Alkynes (unsaturated) – triple C≡C bonds
    • Aromatic – alternating single and double bonds
25 3 alkanes c n h 2n 2
25.3 Alkanes (CnH2n+2)
  • Variations
    • Unbranched (normal, “straight-chained”)
    • Branched
    • Cyclic (CnHn)
  • Structural isomers – same number and type of atoms but different bonding arrangements
nomenclature
Nomenclature
  • Identify longest C chain → base name
  • Number C atoms – lowest number nearest substituent (branch)
  • Give position and name substituents.
  • More than one substituent?
    • Alphabetical
    • Prefixes
    • Some substituents have common names (Table 25.2, p. 1059)
cycloalkanes c n h 2n
Cycloalkanes (CnH2n)

most stable stable strained & unstable

structure structure

alkenes alkynes
Alkenes & Alkynes
  • Alkenes: C=C double bonds
    • Named similarly with an –ene ending and give position of double bond
    • More reactive than alkanes
    • Different arrangements of substituents may result in geometric isomers.
  • Geometric isomers – same atoms, same bonds, but different spatial arrangement of substituent groups.
    • cis- and trans-
slide18

Structural isomers

Geometric isomers

alkenes alkynes1
Alkenes & Alkynes
  • Alkynes: C C triple bonds
    • Named similarly with an –yne ending and give position of triple bond
    • More reactive than alkenes
aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons with alternating single and double C=C bonds.
  • Ring system often has common name.
  • Less reactive than alkenes or alkynes
25 4 organic functional groups
25.4 Organic Functional Groups
  • Site of reactivity
  • R, R', R" represent the alkyl (hydrocarbon) group(s) to which functional group is attached.
25 5 chirality
25.5 Chirality
  • Chiral compounds – compounds containing carbon atoms with four different attached groups
    • Examples: CHFClBr, CH3—C—CH2CH2CH3
  • Enantiomers – nonsuperimposable mirror images

Br

H

chiral compounds
Chiral Compounds
  • D- sugars are preferred
  • L- amino acids are preferred
  • Drugs
    • Ibuprofen: one effective, other inactive
    • Naproxen: one effective, other toxic