John Adams 2nd President 1797-1801 Nickname: “Atlas of Independence”
Warm-up!! • Describe the foreign policy of George Washington in 3 sentences. • Describe George Washington’s view on political parties in 3 sentences. • You will have 6 sentences total.
John Adams’ Contributions of Civic Virtue • Defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trial • Declaration of Independence (worked w/Jefferson) • Continental Congress (Promoted Independence) • Foreign Diplomat • First Vice-President • Second President
Adams: Politics & Beliefs • Federalist • supported by Northern merchants & industry • wanted a strong federal government • Review • Federalists wanted: • - strong federal govt. • - loose interpretation • of Constitution • - national bank • - promoted • manufacturing John Adams Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqAt8A0W204
Major Events of John Adams Presidency • Conflict with France • XYZ Affair • Navy Department & Marine Corps Created • Alien and Sedition Acts • Kentucky & Virginia Resolution Federalist
FYI : The XYZ Affair led to an undeclared war with France. President Adams established the Navy Department, built warships, started the Marines, and increased the size of the army, appointing George Washington as commanding general. Battles took place on the open seas.
The Alien and Sedition Acts Naturalization Act : Required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. Citizenship. Alien Acts: Allowed the president to imprison aliens, or send those he considered dangerous out of the country. Sedition Act: Made it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous, and malicious” criticisms of the government. Do you see anything wrong with these acts????????
Why were they passed ??? The Federalist – controlled Congress wanted to: Strengthen the federal government Silence Republican opposition • Results: • Discouraged immigration and led some foreigners already in the country to leave. • Convicted 10 Republican newspaper editors who had criticized the Federalists in government. • Reaction: • Opposition to Federalist party grows. • Led to movement to allow states to overturn federal laws.
WARM-UP!!! COPY THIS SLIDE IN YOUR NOTES FROM YESTERDAY! The Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions claimed that the Alien & Sedition Acts could not be put into action because they violated the Constitution. States’ Rights - States had rights that the federal government could not violate. States could nullify federal laws. (Used to fight the Alien & Seditions Acts)
Judiciary Act of 1801 • Federalists passed before Jefferson took office. • Set of regional courts for U.S. w/16 judges & other judicial officials • President Adams made 100s’ of appointments • “Midnight Judges” awaited their commissions • President Jefferson took office and stopped delivery of documents • William Marbury sued Madison for delivery • Led to Marbury v. Madison & Judicial Review
Quiz Questions Which controversial legislation of President John Adams’ administration restricted citizens from criticizing the government? • The Embargo Act • The Monroe Doctrine • The Alien and Sedition Acts • The Judiciary Act
Quiz Questions How was President John Adams able to appoint “midnight judges”? • XYZ Affair • The Monroe Doctrine • The Judiciary Act of 1789 • The Judiciary Act of 1801
Quiz Questions Under the Alien Act, how long did it take for an alien to become eligible for U.S. Citizenship? • 10 years • 13 years • 14 years • 15 years
Quiz Questions What amendment allows the press to criticize the government? • 1st amendment • 2nd amendment • 3rd amendment • 4th amendment
Quiz Questions Defending British soldiers, after the Boston Massacre, gained John Adams popularity.
Quiz Questions John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the same day as Thomas Jefferson’s death.