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Basic Combat Airspace Management. OVERVIEW. Historical Perspective Fundamentals/Organization Combat Ops/Combat Plans Key Personnel Airspace Control C2 Nodes Summary. BEFORE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT. BEFORE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT. Before WWII-Big sky little bullet During WWII-Fratricide

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Basic Combat Airspace Management


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    1. Basic Combat Airspace Management

    2. OVERVIEW • Historical Perspective • Fundamentals/Organization • Combat Ops/Combat Plans • Key Personnel • Airspace Control • C2 Nodes • Summary

    3. BEFORE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT

    4. BEFORE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT • Before WWII-Big sky little bullet • During WWII-Fratricide • Arab/Israeli war 1973-Arabs shot down 59 of their own aircraft • Desert Shield/Desert Storm-Airspace very complex-ATACMS/Cruise Missiles AH-64/UAV’s/F-117’s/SOF Aircraft • Allied Force 1999-Many near mid air collisions

    5. DEFINITION: AIRSPACEMANAGEMENT • Maximize combat effectiveness • Provides safe, efficient, flexible use • Prevent fratricide • Enhance air defense operations • Permit greater flexibility of operations • JOINT PUB 3- 52 • JOINT PUB 1- 02

    6. GOALS • Enhance JFC’s objectives by... • Enhancing air, land, maritime and special operations effectiveness • Prevent friendly losses to friendly fire: FRATRICIDE • Safe, expeditious flow of air traffic • No undue operational restrictions

    7. WHY IS AIRSPACE CONTROL IMPORTANT? • Airspace is a resource • Airspace control is a combat multiplier • Airspace control prevents interference among units • Battlespace is complex

    8. AIRSPACE CONTROLBASIC PRINCIPLES • “ Airspace control DOES NOT infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove or deny combat operations.” • Joint Pub 1-02 • Joint Pub 3-52

    9. AIRSPACE CONTROLBASIC PRINCIPLES • AIRSPACE- joint medium used by all components and host nation(s) • Maximum allowable freedom consistent with the risk the JFC considers acceptable • Airspace is common to all users

    10. JOINT FORCE COMMANDER(JFC) • Overall responsible for the conduct of operations • Establishes strategies, objectives, and priorities • Responsible for airspace control and air defense

    11. JOINT FORCE COMMANDER(JFC) WHO DOES THE JFC ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY FOR AIRSPACE CONTROL TO?Joint Force Air ComponentCommander--JFACC

    12. JOINT FORCE AIR COMPONENT COMMANDER • Single component commander • Preponderance of air power in theater and capability for C2 • JFACC NORMALLY BECOMES: • Airspace Control Authority (ACA) • Area Air Defense Commander (AADC)

    13. AIRSPACE CONTROL AUTHORITY (ACA) • Establishes airspace control system • Develops policies/procedures for airspace control • Develops Airspace Control Plan (ACP) • ACP developed in conjunction with Area Air Defense Plan (AADP)

    14. JOINT AIR OPERATIONS CENTER (JAOC) • Carry out ACA responsibilities • Centralized planning • Airspace Management and Control Team (AMCT) • Specialty team within the JAOC

    15. JAOC… in a nutshell … the structure of the JAOC suits its function … … in the Theater Air Ground System … … Centralized Planning and Decentralized Execution … … for all the air assets of a Joint Force … …Plan, Produce, and Execute the ATO ...

    16. JAOC JAOC IS THE LEAD AGENT IN THE THEATER AIR GROUND SYSTEM (TAGS)

    17. AWACS LNO JSTARS LNO ARSOF AFSOF NAVSOF STWC IWC ASWC SUWC Theater Air Ground System JFC JOC TAC (A) ARFOR MARFOR AFFOR NAVFOR SOC FAC (A) JFACC JFACC JFACC CRC ADA LNO AAMDC JAOC CRC ADA BDE BCD MARLO NALE XXX SOLE CORPS TALCE XX AME CP DOCC DIV SOCCE AFLE X CP NG REP FSE BDE GLO II WOC FSE A2C2 CP BN AIRBASES A2C2 FSE TACP ASOC CP TACP A2C2 FSE MAGTF/MEF TACP A2C2 SOCCE FFCC TACP AREC STRIKE OPS CWC E-2C DASC (A) CATF/CLF JAOC TACC/TADC ACE ADC TAC (A) XX TACC / TADC ASC (A) SACC SCC (if assigned) GCE/DIV JAOC SADC FAC (A) CP III FSCC DASC RGT MATC DETS FTR / ATK / HELO TACP II CP TAOC BN FSCC ADA LNO CP TACP FSCC LAAD EW/C TACP

    18. JFACC SERVICE / FUNCTIONAL COMPONENT COMMANDERS COMMAND SECTION SENIOR COMPONENT LIAISONS PERSONNEL INTELL OPS LOGISTICS COMM SJA COMBAT PLANS COMBAT OPERATIONS AIR STRATEGY ATO PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT INTEL PLANS CURRENT OPERATIONS WEATHER SUPPORT OPERATIONS SUPPORT JOINT SEARCH AND RESCUE CENTER* INTEL OPS *-if assigned by the JFC AIRSPACE / COMMAND AND CONTROL COMPONENT LIAISONS JAOC

    19. Combat Plans Division • Plans tomorrow’s war • Products: • ACP-Airspace Control Plan • ATO/SPINS-Air Tasking Order/Special Instructions • ACO-Airspace Control Order

    20. Airspace Control Plan (ACP) • ACP: The ACP is a document approved by the JFC that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force area of responsibility and or joint operations area

    21. 4 Key Elements of ACP 1. JFC guidance on airspace control 2. Airspace Control Procedures (Positive and Procedural) 3. Joint Force airspace control organizations 4. Responsibilities delegated to component commanders concerning airspace control

    22. Air Tasking Order (ATO) • Tasks airpower in support JFC’s campaign objectives for a specified period of time. • Composition is in USMTF message format • Disseminated to subordinate units • Includes call signs, targets, controlling agencies, etc

    23. ATO Contents • Ground Alert SAR: GSAR

    24. ATO Contents • Airborne Alert SAR: XSAR

    25. SPINS • Special Instructions (SPINS) • General Special Instructions … apply to all participants in joint air operations

    26. SPINS • Special Instructions (SPINS) • Daily SPINS … perishable … valid only for a limited time … usually published with the daily ATO

    27. SPINS • ATC reviews SPINS daily for changes that impact airspace usage and or ATC procedures • New/modified air routes • Altitudes changes on existing routes • Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR’s) • Etc…

    28. Airspace Control Order (ACO) • An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace control measures. • Published either as part of the ATO as SPINS or as a separate document

    29. ACM Name ACM Type ACMID / AAR / BROWNANCHOR OPER/C2WAC// MSGID/ACO/C2WS// ACOID/E// PERIOD/060600ZSEP/070559ZSEP// NARR/TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY FOR C2WAC// ACMID/AAR/BROWNANCHOR/270358N0454545E/265904N0454306E /265339N0454334E/264910N0454702E/264648N0455233E/264713N0455840E /265017N0460343E/272117N0463343E/272201N0463422E/272706N0463631E /273227N0463531E/273640N0463138E/273835N0462554E/273742N0461951E /270358N0454545E// EFFLEVEL/17000AMSL-FL250// PERIOD/010600ZSEP/300559ZSEP// AMPN/SHAPE: ORBIT/TIME: CONTINUOUS/PLOTTING INSTRUCTIONS: ORBIT: START AT 265155N 0460135E, GO TO 272255N 0463135E, TURN LEFT 180 DEGREES, WIDTH OF 16.00NM. COMPLETE PATTERN. ACMID POINTS INCLUDE A 2.5NM BUFFER AROUND ORBIT. /AMPN/ SECTOR II /CONTAUTH/CHARTER/B42/B15/VERTICAL SEPARATION CELL LEAD FL235 2ND FL240/RECEIVERS WILL CONTACT CELL LEAD FOR ALT ASSIGN AND SEQUENCING 5NM PRIOR TO REACHING ARIP/FOR EXCEPTIONS CONTACT CHARTER FOR CLRNC// ACMID/AAR/EXXON/274848N0380544E/274330N0380707E/273931N0381117E /273756N0381709E/273909N0382307E/274251N0382736E/274803N0382924E /282749N0383100E/282844N0383100E/283354N0382906E/283732N0382433E /283840N0381834E/283700N0381244E/283258N0380838E/274848N0380544E// EFFLEVEL/17000AMSL-FL250// PERIOD/060600ZSEP/070559ZSEP// AMPN/SHAPE:ORBIT/TIME:CONTINUOUS/PLOTTING INSTRUCTIONS: ORBIT: START AT 274808N 0382635E, GO TO 282754N 0382811E, TURN LEFT 180 DEGREES, WIDTH OF 16.00NM. COMPLETE PATTERN. ACMID POINTS INCLUDE A 2.5NM BUFFER AROUND ORBIT. /AMPN/ SECTOR II /CONTAUTH/CHARTER/B42/B15/VERTICAL SEPARATION CELL LEAD FL235 2ND FL240/RECEIVERS WILL CONTACT CELL LEAD FOR ALT ASSIGN AND SEQUENCING 5NM PRIOR TO REACHING ARIP/FOR EXCEPTIONS CONTACT CHARTER FOR CLRNC// ACMID/AAR/GREENANCHOR/270603N0492509E/270048N0492644E /265657N0493104E/265533N0493659E/265657N0494254E/270048N0494714E /270603N0494849E/274603N0494849E/274658N0494846E/275204N0494641E /275534N0494159E/275631N0493557E/275439N0493011E/275029N0492615E /270603N0492509E// EFFLEVEL/17000AMSL-FL250// PERIOD/060600ZSEP/070559ZSEP// AMPN/SHAPE:ORBIT/TIME:CONTINUOUS/PLOTTING INSTRUCTIONS: ORBIT: START AT 270603N 0494600E, GO TO 274603N 0494600E, TURN LEFT 180 DEGREES, WIDTH OF 16.00NM. COMPLETE PATTERN. ACMID POINTS INCLUDE A 2.5NM BUFFER AROUND ORBIT. /AMPN/ SECTOR II /CONTAUTH/CARDSHARP/B7/B36/RECEIVERS WILL CONTACT CELL LEAD FOR SEQUENCING AND ALT ASSINGMENT 5NM PRIOR TO REACHING THE ARIP/FOR EXCEPTIONS CONTACT CARDSHARP FOR CLRNC// ACO (1998)

    30. Combat Ops Division • Monitors/Executes the current ATO (Today’s War) • Coordinates and directs real-time changes to the ATO/ACO to support mission requirements • Disseminates ATO/ACO changes to subordinate C2 agencies and WOC’s

    31. Combat Ops Division ATO Execution • Offensive Operations Core Team • Senior Offensive Duty Officer (SODO). • Offensive Duty Officers (ODOs) and Duty Technicians (DTs) • IW, ISR, EW, CSAR, Space, Fighter, Attack, Bomber, Tanker, Service-unique aircraft • Defensive Operations Core Team • Senior Air Defense Officer (SADO) • Defensive Duty Officers (DDOs) and Duty Technicians (DTs) • Theater air defense operations

    32. Key Coordination Personnel • Airspace Control Cell • Senior Offensive Duty Officer (SODO). • Senior Air Defense Officer (SADO) • Air Mobility Division (AMD) • Regional Air Movement Control Center (RAMCC)

    33. Airspace Control Cell • Located within Combat Plans and Combat Ops Divisions of the AOC

    34. Senior Ops Duty Officer(SODO) • Located within Combat Ops Divisions of the AOC • Supervises offensive operations for today’s ATO

    35. Senior Air Defense Officer (SADO) • Located within Combat Ops Divisions of the AOC • Supervises defensive operations for today’s ATO

    36. Air Mobility Division (AMD) • Own Division within the AOC • Plans/executes the air mobility mission

    37. Regional Air Movement Control Center (RAMCC) • Separate/Specialty division of the AOC • May or may not be collocated with the AOC • Coordinates arrivals/departures times to help deconflict military/civilian traffic at designated airfields • Issues slot times based on the number of variables • Issues IFF Mode 3 squawk codes to civil/military aircraft not in ATO

    38. AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL TEAM FUNCTIONS • Develops airspace policies and procedures • Airspace Control Plan (ACP) • Coordinates and integrates airspace users • Airspace Control Order (ACO) • Coordinates airspace utilization with other Air Traffic Control (ATC) agencies

    39. AIRSPACE CONTROL INVOLVES FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    40. FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES • AIRSPACE CONTROL INVOLVES FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES • Command and Control (C2) • Air Defense • Fire Support Coordination • Air Traffic Control

    41. ATO/ACO JAOC AWACS MEZ MEZ RAPCON FSCL R31 FAC (A) CRC CRC XX CMCP TR3 R32 ASOC XX MRR3 R33 XXX MEZ TMRR PAA ACA XX TACP WFZ EA 40 37 41 38 39 36 35 34 BDZ 33

    42. AIRSPACE CONTROL METHODS • POSITIVE CONTROL • PROCEDURAL CONTROL 43

    43. AIRSPACE CONTROL METHODS • POSITIVE CONTROL • PROCEDURAL CONTROL 44

    44. AIRSPACE CONTROL METHODS • POSITIVE CONTROL • PROCEDURAL CONTROL 45

    45. Procedural Airspace Control Methods 46

    46. Procedural • Procedural ACMs • ROA / ROZ • HIDACZ • Coordinating Altitude • MRR • SAAFR • Fire Support Coordinating • Measures • Permissive • FSCL • FFA • CFL • Restrictive • NFA • RFA • RFL • ACA • Orbit Areas and Tracks • CAPs • Orbits / Tracks 47

    47. Procedural • Special Procedures • ATACMS • UAV • CALCMs • TLAMs • F-117s • Weapons Engagement Zones • JEZ • FEZ • HIMEZ / LOMEZ • SHORADEZ • WFZ 47

    48. AIRSPACE CONTROL MEASURES • High Density Airspace Control Zone (HIDACZ) • Coordinating Altitude • Restricted Operating Zone (ROZ) • Minimum Risk Route (MRR) • Standard use Army Aircraft Flight Route (SAAFR) 49

    49. ROZ/ROA • Defined volume of airspace • ACA approves • Restricts aircraft use • i.e.- Drop zones, UAV launch/recovery sites etc. 52

    50. MRR • Ground component commander recommends • ACA approves • Minimum risk to friendly aircraft • Air defense weapons control status “TIGHT” • Used by high speed, fixed wing aircraft • Dimensions vary- see ACP and ACO • Traverses Corps rear to FSCL 53