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  1. 1. Aprill C, Bogduk N. High-intensity zone: a diagnostic sign of painful lumbar disc on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 1992;65:361-9. • 2. Lam KS, Carlin D, Mulholland RC. Lumbar disc high-intensity zone: the value and significance of provocative discography in the determination of the discogenic pain source. Eur Spine J 2000;9:36-41. • 3. Carragee EJ, Paragioudakis SJ, Khurana S. 2000 Volvo Award winner in clinical studies: lumbar high-intensity zone and discography in subjects without low back problems. Spine 2000;25:2987-92. • 4. Thornbury JR, Fryback DG, Turski PA, et al. Disk-caused nerve compression in patients with acute low-back pain: diagnosis with MR, CT myelography, and plain CT. Radiology 1993;186:731-8.). • 5.-Pevsner PH, Ondra S, Radcliff W, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine. A comparison with computed tomography and myelography. ActaRadiol Suppl. 1986;369:706–7. • 6.-Albeck MJ, Hilden J, Kjear L, et al. A controlled comparisonofmyelography, computed tomography and magneticresonance imaging in clinically suspected lumbar disc herniation. Spine 1995;20:443–8. • 7.- Bell GR, Rothman RH, Booth RE, et al. A study of computed-assisted tomography. Part II. Comparison of metrizamidemyelography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of herniated • 8. Algra PR, Bloem JL, Tissing H, et al. Detection of vertebral metastases: comparison between MR imaging and bone scintigraphy. Radiographics 1991;11:219-32. • 9. Avrahami E, Tadmor R, Dally O, Hadar H. Early MR demonstration of spinal metastases in patients with normal radiographs and CT and radionuclide bone scans. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1989;13:598-602. • lumbar disc and spinal stenosis. Spine 1984. • 10. Modic MT, Feiglin DH, Piraino DW et al. Vertebral osteomyelitis: assessment using MR. Radiology 1985;157:157-66.

  2. 11. Sandhu HS, Sanchez-Caso LP, Parvataneni HK, et al. Association between findings of provocative discography and vertebral endplate signal changes as seen on MRI. J Spinal Disord 2000;13:438-43. • 12. Rankine JJ, Gill KP, Hutchinson CE, et al. The clinical significance of the high-intensity zone on lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 1999;24:1913-9. • 13. Swanson D, Blecker I, Gebhauer H, Caride VJ. Diagnosis of discitis by SPECT technetium-99m MDP scintogram. A case report. Clin Nucl Med 1987;12:210-1. • 14. Van den Bosch MAAJ, Hollingworth W, Kinmonth AL, Dixon AK. Evidence against the use of lumbar spine radiography for low back pain. Clin Radiol 2004;59:69-76. • 15. Masaryk T, Drayer BP, Anderson RE, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria for acute low back pain – radiculopathy 2001. • 16.- Jackson RP, Cain JE, Jacobs RR, et al. The neuroradiographic diagnosis of lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus: II.A comparison of computed tomogrpahy (CT), myelography,CT-myelography, and magnetic resonance imaging.Spine 1989;14:1362–7. • 17. Esposito P, Pinheiro-Franco JL, Froelich S, Maitrot D (2006)Predictive value of MRI vertebral end-plate signal changes(Modic) on outcome of surgically treated degenerative disc disease. Neurochirurgie 52(4):315–322. • 18. Kjaer P, Leboeuf-Yde C, Korsholm L, Sorensen JS, Bendix T(2005) Magnetic resonance imaging and low back pain in adults:A diagnostic imaging study of 40-year-old men and women.Spine 30:1173–1180.

  3. 19. Kjaer P, Korsholm L, Bendix T, Sorensen JS, Leboeuf-Yde C(2006) Modic changes and their associations with clinicalfindings. Eur Spine J 15:1312–1319. • 20. Kuisma M, Karpinnen J, Niinima¨ki J, Ojala R, HaapeaM,Helio¨vaara M, Korpelainen R, Taimela S, Natri A, Tervonen O(2007) Modic changes in endplates of lumbar vertebral bodies:prevalence and association with low back and sciatic pain amongmiddle-aged male workers. Spine 32(10):1116–1122 • 21. Malinin T, Brown MD (2007) Changes in vertebral bodiesadjacent to acutely narrowed intervertebral discs: observations inbaboons. Spine 32(21):E603–E607 • 22. Mitra D, Cassar-Pulliccino VN, McCall IW (2004) Longitudinalstudy of vertebral type-1 end-plate changes on MR of the lumbarspine. EurRadiol 14(9):1574–1581. Eur Spine J (2008) 17:1766–1768 1767. • 23.Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Carter JR (1988)Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebralbody marrow with MR imaging. Radiology 166(1 Pt 1):193–199. • 24. Pfirrmann CW, Metzdorf A, Zanetti M, Hodler J, Boos N (2001)Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebraldiscdegeneration. Spine 26(17):1873–1878. • 25. Pinheiro Franco JL (2008) Modic 1 to Modic 2. J Neurosurg. Spine 8:391–392. • 26. Toyone T, Takahashi K, Kitahara H, Yamagata M, Murakami Moriya H (1994) Vertebral bone-marrow changes in degenerative lumbar disc disease. A MRI study of 74 patients with low back pain. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76:757–764. • 27. Vital JM, Gille O, Pointillart V, Pedram M, Bacon P, Razanabola F, Schaederle C, Azzouz S (2003) Course of Modic 1 six months after lumbar posterior osteosynthesis. Spine 28(7):715–720.EurSpine J (2008) 17:1766–1768