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Chapter 8 Cell division Mitosis/Meiosis Review. This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a ______________________. centromere. The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. G 0. Binary fission. Cell division in bacteria cells is called

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slide2
This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a ______________________

centromere

The phase of the cell cycle

in which cells stop dividing all together.

G0

slide3

Binary fission

Cell division in bacteria cells is called

_______________________

Phase of the cell cycle in which

DNA is copied

S (synthesis)

slide4

karyotype

This organized picture

of an individual’s chromosomes is called

a _______________

This person is a _____________.

male female

female (has XX)

slide5

histones

The proteins that help wrap up the DNA into chromosomes are ______________________

Phase of the cell cycle

In which the nuclear membrane is presentand DNA is spread out into chromatin.

interphase

slide6
This red area on the

centromere where the

spindle fibers attach is

called the ___________________

kinetochore

List the phases of mitosis in orderstarting with prophase.

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

slide7

telophase

Phase of mitosis that followsanaphase

Phase of the cell cycle that follows G2

Mitosis (prophase)

slide8
This network of fibersthat attach and pullthe chromosomesapart is called the

mitotic ______________

spindle

This cell is in__________________

prophase

slide9

46(23 pairs)

Humans have ______ chromosomes.

Type of cell division in eukaryoticcells that results in 2 identical daughter cells.

mitosis

slide10
Reproduction in which

offspring come from

the DNA of just one parent is called _____________ reproduction

asexual

The dark colored spot near the nucleus that contains the centrioles

when the cell is not dividing is the

______________

centrosome

slide11

Sex chromosomes

The 2 chromosomes that determinethe sex of an individual are called__________________________

G1, S, and G2 make up this phaseof the cell cycle.

Interphase

slide12

haploid

Sperm and eggs are __________ cells.haploid diploid

This person is a_______________

male female

Male (has XY)

slide13
Proteins that control the turning

on and off of specific regions of DNA

Non-histones

One of 2 identical armsthat make up a chromosome

chromatid

slide14

diploid

A cell that contains two copies ofeach chromosome is said to be

__________________

Humans have 2 sex chromosomesand 44 _______________.

autosomes

slide15
The place in the cell membrane of an animal cell that pinches in during cytokinesis is called a

____________________

cleavage furrow

Plant cells can’t pinch to divide, instead they form a _______________

to divide.

cell plate

slide16

anaphase

This phase of thecell cycle is______________

Cell which contains only 1 copy ofeach of the chromosomes

haploid

slide17

metaphase

This phase of the

cell cycle is

________________

Phase of the cell cycle cells spend

most of their time in.

Interphase (G1)

slide18
Part of interphase in which thecell grows to mature size and carries out its job.

G1

Type of eukaryotic cell divisionwhich produces cells with ½ thenumber of chromosomes as the original cell.

meiosis

slide19

metaphase

Phase of mitosis that followsprophase

Phase of the cell cycle that follows S

G2

slide20

chromatin

DNA that is all spread out inan interphase nucleus is called________________

Phase of mitosis in which thenuclear membrane and nucleolusdisappear and the DNA scrunches into chromosomes.

prophase

slide21
In this part of interphase cellsmake the molecules and organellesneeded for cell division

G2

The 2 copies of each chromosomeare called ______________ chromosomes because are the same size,

same shape, and carry genes for thesame traits.

homologous

slide22
These structuresat the poles whichattach to the spindle fibers and pull the chromosomes.

centrioles

A karyotype can tell us ____________

The sex of the organism

AND if they have missing/extra chromosomes

slide23

chromosome

When chromatin scrunches together it is called a _________________

If the body cells of an organismhave 24 chromosomes, how manywould be in a sperm or egg cell?

12; Sperm and eggs have ½ the number of chromosomes as body cells

slide24
True OR FalseThis organismis a human.

False; only 40 chromosomes Humans have 46

Phase of mitosis in which chromsomesline up in the middle of the cell.

metaphase

slide25

Mitosis or Meiosis?

Used by organisms to grow in size

Makes 4 haploid cells

Crossing over happens

Used to make gametes

Makes identical 2n cells

Used to repair injuries or

replace worn out cells

Mitosis

Meiosis

Meiosis

Meiosis

Mitosis

Mitosis

slide26

interphase

This phase iscalled _______________

Dark spots next to thenucleus that contain the centrioles.

centrosomes

slide27

anaphase

Phase of mitosis that followsmetaphase

Phase of the cell cycle that follows G1

S

slide28

anaphase

This cell is in___________

Phase of cell division in whichthe nuclear membrane returns andchromosomes spread out into chromatin.

telophase

slide29

telophase

This cell is in__________

The cell above is a _________ cell.

animal plant

Plant

You can see the cell plate forming in center insteadof a cleavage furrow.

slide30

The person in this karyotype has anextra number #21 chromosome. She has ________ syndrome.

Down’s

slide31
Reproduction in which offspring come from the DNA of 2 parents is called ____________

reproduction.

sexual

Phase of the cell cycle in which cells

stop dividing all together

G0

slide32
Phase of mitosis in whichseparate and move to oppositeends of the cell.

anaphase

The very first dividing phase is_______________

prophase

slide33
Type of cell division shown at the leftmitosis meiosis

meiosis

How can you tell?

Homologous pairs line up, crossing over happens; end up with 4 cells that have ½ the chromosome number you started with

slide34

Cleavage furrow

This is called a ______________

This cell is _____________ cell.

an animal a plant

an animalPlants don’t have cleavage furrows.

slide35
Phase of meiosis where crossing over happens

PROPHASE I

Type of cell division used to make

gametes

meiosis

slide36
Phase of the cell cycle where cells spend most of their time. They grow bigger and they do their jobas body cells.

G1

List the phases of mitosis in orderstarting with interphase

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

slide37
Name the two ways genetic recombination happens during meiosis

Crossing over & independent assortment

How is INTERPHASE II differentfrom INTERPHASE I?

DNA is NOT copied during interphase II and it is in interphase I

slide38
The exchange of genetic material between chromatid arms of homologous chromosomes is called _______________

Crossing over

The group of 4 chromatid arms

above is called a ___________

tetrad

slide39

MITOSISMEIOSIS

Makes 2 diploid (2n) cells Makes 4 haploid (1n) cells

Divides once Divides twice/copies DNA once

Makes body cells Makes gametes (sperm/eggs)

Makes cells identical to parent Makes cells with ½ the number

of chromosomes of parent

No genetic recombination Crossing over/independent assortment allow for genetic recombination

Used to grow in size, Used to make reproductive repair injuries, cells

replace worn out cells

No synapsis of homologous pairs Homologous pairs line up together

Tell 2 ways mitosis and meiosis are different

slide41
The chromosomes that DO NOT

determine the organism’s sex are

called _________________

autosomes

Type of cell division in whichgenetic recombination can happen.

meiosis

slide42
Phase of the cell cycle after S phasein which cells make the moleculesand organelles needed for cell division.

G2

Humans have ? Chromosomes.

46 (23 pairs)