Gcse physical education
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GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. REVISION Class of 2009. Section A Training and Exercise. Reasons for taking part in physical activity. Health, Fitness and performance. Skill related fitness. Principles of Training. Methods of Training. Section B Safety and Risk Assessment in Sport:.

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Gcse physical education



Class of 2009

Section a training and exercise
Section ATraining and Exercise

  • Reasons for taking part in physical activity.

  • Health, Fitness and performance.

  • Skill related fitness.

  • Principles of Training.

  • Methods of Training.

Section b safety and risk assessment in sport
Section BSafety and Risk Assessment in Sport:

  • Prevention of Injury

  • Sports Injuries

Section c anatomy and physiology
Section C: Anatomy and physiology

  • Circulatory System.

  • Respiratory System.

  • Bones

  • Joints, Tendons, Ligaments.

  • Muscles and Muscle Action.

Reasons for taking part in physical activity
Reasons for taking part in physical activity.

Reasons why take part in sport

  • Physical

  • Social

  • Psychological

Hints and Tips:In the exam you will need to be able to relate the reasons for taking part in certain sports / activities to a certain reason.Make sure you can adapt the reason you have learnt for different types of people.E.g. Saturday football team = social / personal

Different assets for different sports
Different assets for different sports

There are many different factors that affect

participation and performance. Examples

  • Body build

  • Speed

  • Endurance

  • Strength

  • Power

Hints and tips

There are six skill related fitness factors:





Reaction time



Hints and Tips

Health exercise fitness and performance
Health, exercise, fitness and performance


You need to know the definitions


Health is a state of complete mental,

physical and social well-being not simply the absence of disease or infirmity.


Exercise is a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness.


Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.


Performance is how well the task is


Diet and sport
Diet and Sport

Consider different dietary requirements for different sports.

Examples: Shot putter v Gymnast v Long

distance runner.


Seven factors of a balanced diet.

  • Carbohydrates

  • Fats

  • Proteins

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water

  • Fibre

Make sure you know what we need each one for to aid performance.

Body composition
Body composition

Body composition is defined as ‘ the

percentage of body weight which is fat,

muscle and bone’


This is the technical name for body

type, also referred to as body build or


Scoring body types
Scoring body types

Measurements are taken and a score is

given out of seven.

# Endomorph (fat score)

# Mesomorph (muscle score)

# Ectomorph (thinness score)

Hints and Tips: Make sure you can explain

different types of somatotypes to different sports and how this affects performance.

The principles of training
The Principles of Training

  • Consider individual needs

  • Specificity

  • Overload

  • Progression

  • Reversibility

  • Tedium

Fitt principle
FITT Principle





Methods of training
Methods of training

  • Interval training – periods of work followed by periods of rest. High intensity – good for anaerobic work.

  • Continuous training – working continuously at moderate to slow speed.

  • Fartlek – (speedplay) Running at various speeds over varying distances and terrain.

  • Circuit – variety of exercises in a circuit.

Muscular strength and muscular endurance
Muscular strength and muscular endurance

  • Muscular strength is the ability of the muscles to exert force, or the amount of force required to produce a single maximum effort. E.g. Weight lifting

  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.

Section b safety and risk assessment in sport1
Section B:Safety and Risk Assessment in Sport

  • Prevention of Injury.

  • Sports Injuries

Risk and safety aspects associated with taking part in sport
Risk and safety aspects associated with taking part in sport

Injuries happen in sport happen, but can

be reduced through:

  • Obeying the rules

  • Correct clothing and equipment

  • Balanced competition

  • Warming Up and cooling down

Sports injuries
Sports Injuries

Injuries to joints:

  • twisted ankle joints

  • dislocations

  • torn cartilage

  • overuse injuries – tennis elbow, golf elbow

    Hints and Tips: Make sure you can recognise

    the signs and symptoms of these types of


Skin damage
Skin damage

  • Cuts

  • Grazes

  • Blisters

  • Bruises


  • R – Rest

  • I – Ice

  • C – Compression

  • E - Elevate

Hypothermia dehydration unconsciousness concussion
Hypothermia, Dehydration, Unconsciousness, Concussion.

  • Hypothermia – body temp falls below 35 c

  • Dehydration – occurs during long duration or extreme heat conditions. Recognised by tiredness, nausea and dizziness.

  • Unconsciousness – caused by reduced supply of blood, heart attack, stroke, shock, hypothermia, epilepsy, suffocation or drowning

  • Causes – blows to the head or the jaw.

  • Concussion – occurs normally when there is a blow to the head, maybe become unconscious, cold and have a high pulse rate.

Section c anatomy and physiology1
Section C: Anatomy and physiology

  • Circulatory system

  • Respiratory System

  • Bones

  • Joints Tendons Ligaments

  • Muscles and Muscle Action

The heart
The Heart

  • The components of the heart.

  • The Blood Vessels

  • The pathway of the Blood

The parts of the heart
The parts of the Heart

REMEMBER L O R D = Left Oxygenated Right Deoxygenated



Vena Cava

Pulmonary Artery

Semi Lunar Valve

Pulmonary Veins

Right Atrium

Left Atrium

Bicuspid Valve

Right Ventricle

Left Ventricle

Vena Cava

Semi Lunar Valve

Blood vessels
Blood Vessels

Capillaries = Smallest of all vessels.

Arteries = Oxygenated Blood, thick elastic

walls, small Lumen.

Veins = Deoxygenated Blood, Valves,

large Lumen.

Where the blood goes
Where the blood goes

Blood is pumped away from the heart by 2


# one route to the lungs

# the other to the working muscles (body)

Hints and Tips: Learn the anatomy of the

heart – atrium, ventricles, valves and blood


The pulmonary system to the lungs
The Pulmonary system = To the lungs

De-oxygenated blood:

right atrium – through the vena cava –

tricuspid valve – right ventricle – into

pulmonary system – lungs – back to the

heart as oxygenated blood.

The systemic system to the heart
The systemic system = to the Heart

Oxygenated Blood:

Left atrium – oxygenated blood – bicuspid

valve – left ventricle – semi lunar valve – out

of aorta – to working body.

Hints and Tips: If its going away from the

heart, it starts with an A.

If its going to the heart it starts with a V.

Stroke volume
Stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat


As you get fitter your Stroke Volume Increases.

Cardiac output
Cardiac Output

the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute

CO = HR x SV

As you get fitter your Cardiac Output Increases.

Heart rate
Heart Rate

Heart rate – the number of times the heart beats PER MINUTE

The fitter you get the lower your resting

Pulse. Also your recovery rate decreases.

Tests for cardiovascular fitness
Tests for cardiovascular fitness

  • Multi stage fitness test (Bleep test)

  • Cooper 12 minute run test

  • Harvard step test

    Hints and Tips: Know what resting HR,

    working HR and recovery rates mean.

Respiratory fitness
Respiratory fitness

  • Breathing

  • Passage of air

  • Alveoli

  • Gaseous exchange

  • Respiration and Sport

Passage of air
Passage of air

  • Through the nose which filters and warms the air.

  • Trachea – bronchus – bronchioles - alveoli

Alveoli and gaseous exchange
Alveoli and gaseous exchange

  • Alveoli – contact with capillaries – oxygen delivered to working muscles – carbon dioxide taken out.

    Hints and Tips: Understand and explain

    gaseous exchange and relate it to sporting situations.

The effects of exercise
The effects of exercise

  • faster heart rate

  • quicker and deeper breathing

  • rise in body temperature

  • sweating

  • muscle ache

    Hints and Tips: explain why these happen and

    link these effects to the respiratory system.

Exercise aerobic and anaerobic exercise
Exercise – Aerobic and Anaerobic exercise

  • Both systems improve with training.

  • Aerobic improvements in endurance.

  • Anaerobic improvements in events requiring short bursts of energy.


  • Types of bones according to their function

  • Bones of the vertebrae

The four functions of the skeleton
The Four Functions Of The Skeleton

1. Support

2. Protection

3. Movement

4. Shape

The types of bones
The Types Of Bones

Long Bones:Flat Bones:

Short Bones:Irregular Bones:

Humerus, Femur, Tibia, Metacarpals, Metatarsals etc.

Cranium (skull), Pelvis, Scapula, Ribs etc.

Vertebrae , facial bones.

Tarsals, Carpals, etc.

The vertebral column spine
The vertebral Column / Spine

Try to remember:







This is where the ribs are attached.



A joint is where two or more bones meet.

  • Different types of joints

  • Synovial joints

  • Movement possibilities

Synovial joints
Synovial joints

Ball and Socket





Types of joint movement
Types of joint movement

  • Extension = Opening a joint

  • Flexion = Closing a joint

  • Adduction = Moving towards an imaginary centre line

  • Abduction = Moving away from an imaginary centre line

  • Rotation= Turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwise.

    Learn these and relate them to actual actions


Ligaments = Bone to Bone


Voluntary Muscles are attached

to the bones by Tendons


3 Types of Muscles

  • Voluntary

  • Involuntary

  • Cardiac

Muscle fibres
Muscle fibres

  • Fast twitch (work quickly but also tire quickly)

  • Slow twitch( rich in oxygen, work for long periods)

    Hints and Tips:

    Hypertrophy - when muscles get bigger

    Atrophy - when muscles get smaller.


You have to locate the following:

  • Deltoids

  • Pectoralis major

  • Biceps

  • Abdominals

  • Quadriceps

  • Trapezius

  • Triceps

  • Latissimus Dorsi

  • Gluteus Maximus

  • Hamstrings

  • Gastrocnemius

How muscles work
How Muscles Work

Muscle can only create movement in ONE direction e.g. the bicep contracts and causes flexion (the muscle becomes shorter) This is called the Agonist.


This means that at every joint there has to be TWO muscles so that they can move in TWO directions. The second is called the Antagonist.


Types of muscle contraction
Types of Muscle Contraction

Two Types of Contraction:

Isometric – NO MOVEMENT, the muscle stays the same length. Give an example of an action that causes isometric contraction, and name the muscle.

Isotonic – Muscle changes Length, Eccentric when it gets longer and Concentric when it gets shorter.

Give an example and name the muscles.