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The South and the Slavery Controversy . Post Revolution- TJ and other southern leaders openly talk about freeing slaves Eli Whitney restores profitability of slavery Cotton cultivation chains the slave to the gin, and the planter to the slave. . The Slavery Issue.

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The South and the Slavery Controversy

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    1. The South and the Slavery Controversy

    2. Post Revolution- TJ and other southern leaders openly talk about freeing slaves Eli Whitney restores profitability of slavery Cotton cultivation chains the slave to the gin, and the planter to the slave. The Slavery Issue

    3. Cotton- planters now moving to Gulf States because soil is fertile Northern merchants get rich- transport cotton to England, then buy English goods to bring back to America Cotton- ½ of nations exports in 1840 Supplies half of world’s cotton supply 75% of England’s cotton comes from the south- England is largest producer of cotton cloth Cotton is King

    4. England’s dependence on South’s cotton makes them feel like Kings Cotton Is King

    5. South is more of an oligarchy than democracy Only 1,733 families owned over 100 slaves This select few dominate politics, economy, and and social aspects of life “Cottonocracy” The Planter Aristocracy

    6. Planters have majority of wealth in South Educate their kids in North or abroad Money allows leisure, for study, reflection, and statecraft Aristocracy= undemocratic Gap between rich and poor increases No public education, rich can send kids to North, why use tax money The Planter Aristocracy

    7. Women Plantation mistress- large staff to run Some good, some bad Almost all are against abolition, don’t have problems with separating slave families The Planter Aristocracy

    8. Quick profits leads to excessive planting = land butchery Monopolistic- small farmers often forced to sell lands to large farmers, then move north and west Slaves of the Slave System

    9. Plantation system can be financially unstable Get rich quick, many planters buy too much land and go into debt Slaves are heavy investments Slaves can runway, or be wiped out be a disease easily One crop economy- price levels are controlled by global factors Slaves of the Slave System

    10. South resents North getting rich at their expense North “owns them from cradle to grave” No immigration in the South why? Slaves are labor source Best lands are too expensive Most immigrants lack knowledge of cotton planting Slaves of the Slave System

    11. Roughly only ¼ of South owns slaves or belonged to slave holding family Most slave owners own less than 5 slaves- worked on small farms , worked next to their slaves The White Majority

    12. 75% of south population owns no slaves Most dream of becoming large plantation owner Forced into crappy lands, mountainous areas- subsistence farmers Known as hillbillies, crackers, clay eaters The White Majority

    13. If minority hold slaves, why did they fight in the ACW? 1.American Dream- maybe a few more slaves and I’ll be rich 2. Racial- Despite being poor and often living in worse conditions, still felt superior to blacks, if blacks are freed this kills that mindset White Majority

    14. Special group of men- mountain whites- outskirts of society, many never seen a slave In the ACW, mountain whites will play crucial rule in helping the Union White Majority

    15. 250,000 In upper south- most earned freedom after the AR Deep South- mulattoes, offspring of master and slave mistress In New Orleans- many were successful property owners Free Blacks of the South

    16. The “Third Race” Banned from certain jobs, can’t testify against whites in courts Slave traders could kidnap them back into slavery White majority hates them, gives other slaves hope Free Blacks of the South

    17. Face same (if not more) racism Can’t vote, barred from public schools Irish hate them because they compete for same unskilled jobs In the south- whites hate the race, but like the individual, in the north whites profess to like the race, but hate the individual Free Blacks of the North

    18. 4 million in the south in chattel slavery Slave traded ended in US 1808 England 1807 Yet estimations of 3 millions slaves still illegally shipped around the world – “black ivory” Plantation Slavery

    19. Stopping international slave trade encourages the internal (domestic) slave trade – Slaves goes from Upper south to deep south “Sold down the river” Slave population growth is due to natural production- makes US unique in slave history Plantation Slavery

    20. Slaves are huge investment, and a sign of wealth in the south If jobs are too dangerous, plantations use Irish, rather than risk a slave’s life Female slaves now have a high value – “rattlin good breeders” usually had 13-14 kids (including mulattoes) Plantation Slavery

    21. Plantation Slavery

    22. Differs greatly Most work dusk till dawn Most have white overseer or black driver No legal protection Some states have laws that down allow selling of children But- hard to enforce, black marriages are legal, and than cannot testify in court Life of Slaves

    23. Whipping is best punishment Sometimes breakers must be sent Breakers = extremely cruel overseers Savage beatings are not common WHY Life of Slaves

    24. By 1860 most slaves concentrated in the Deep South- SC, GE, AL, MS, LA Also known as cotton kingdom The Black Belt

    25. Majority life on large plantations- communities of 20 or more slaves Most slave separations occur on smaller farms Despite conditions, form a distinct culture Life of Slaves

    26. Religion, mix of African and Christianity “Tell old Pharaoh, let my people go” Responsorial – congregation responds with assents or amens- Slaves and Religion

    27. 9 out of 10 blacks are totally illiterate b4 ACW Most successful methods of resistance Work as slow as possible (hence myth that blacks are lazy) Steal food from plantation house Break Equipment Abortions, birth control Slave Resistance

    28. Were slave rebellions, but never successful. Often informed upon by other slaves. 1800 Gabriel in Richmond Denmark Vesey, Charleston in 1822. Most famous was rebellion by Nat Turner in Va. in 1831. Slave Resistance

    29. Spanish Slave Ship Amistad 1839 Spent two years in prison JQA releases them and sends them to Sierra Leone (British Colony) White southerners, out numbered, are now terrified in the face of rebellions, especially Nat Turner’s Slave Resistance

    30. Early abolitionism. Quakers. American Colonization Society (1817) Liberia. 15000 freed blacks transported to Africa Why don’t more American Blacks go back to Africa?. Early Abolitionism

    31. In the 1830s abolitionist turned into a crusade. Why? Theodore Dwight Weld—early Abolitionist preacher. American Slavery as It Is (1839) Lyman Beecher, head of Lane Theological Seminary, hotbed of early abolitionism. Very influential and father of “Lanes Rebels” Harriet Beecher Stowe –Uncle Tom’s Cabin Henry Ward Beecher- Beecher’s Bibles Catharine Beecher- Women’s education movement Early Abolition

    32. 1831 William Lloyd Garrison Published militant abolitionist magazine: The Liberator. Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833. Immediate Abolition Critics say- too radical, and didn’t offer any solution to “race” problem Radical Abolition I will be as harsh as the truth and as uncompromising as justice… I am earnest- I will not equivocate- I will not excuse- I will not retreat a single inch- I will be heard

    33. Sojourner Truth –abolition and women’s rights David Walker—Militant- Appeal to Colored Citizens of the World Frederick Douglas Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass (3 times) Greatest of the Black abolitionists escaped from bondage in 1838 at 21. Protégé of Garrison Black Abolitionists

    34. Before 1830: More anti-slavery societies in south than north Southerners openly debated merits of slavery. After 1830 debate in South ends and many southerners defend as positive good. What changed? Nat Turners rebellion in 1831 Nullification Crisis Reaction to Northern criticism Southern preachers arguing that slavery supported by Bible The South Lashes Back

    35. Slavery is supported by the bible and wisdom of Aristotle Africans taken from barbarianism, and brought to Christian civilization South tries to paint slave master is caring father of slave family Slavery the positive good?

    36. South said slaves were happier than wage slaves of the north (Irish) How so? South now viewed as backward, while North viewed as moving forward 1836- Gag Resolution- slavery cannot be debated in congress Slavery the positive good?

    37. Abolitionists were not particularly popular in the North for some time. Why? North had heavy stake in the cotton of the south. Textile mills relied on southern cotton. Many northerners feared political controversy. Many northern politicians carefully distanced themselves from the abolitionists. Abolitionists harassed Yet, by 1850 abolitionism had gained strength and taken root as a popular cause. Abolitionists Impact in the North