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FW: filament winding AFP: automated fibre placement ATL: tape laying pultrusion tube rolling . John Summerscales. Filament winding. continuous fibre reinforcements are precisely positioned in a pre-determined pattern on a rotating mandrel (mould tool for filament winding)

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fw filament winding afp automated fibre placement atl tape laying pultrusion tube rolling

FW: filament windingAFP: automated fibre placementATL: tape laying pultrusion tube rolling

John Summerscales

filament winding

Filament winding

continuous fibre reinforcements are precisely positioned in a pre-determined pattern on a rotating mandrel (mould tool for filament winding)

normally computer numerically controlled (CNC) to permit highly automated production of axisymmetric components

filament winding3
Filament winding
  • simple machine: just two axes
    • rotation of the mandrel
    • translation of the feed eye on an axis parallel to the machine axis
  • complexity characterised bythe number of degrees of freedom:
    • up to six separately controlled axes
    • usually three orthogonal and three rotational axes
filament winding4
Filament winding

image from http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acfil.jpg

filament winding tension
Filament winding - tension
  • fibre tension is critical to the operation of a filament winding machine
  • normal to have fibre tensioners(closed-loop controlled servo-driven "dancers")
  • tension required depends on
    • type of fibre
    • part diameter
    • winding pattern
filament winding tension6
Filament winding - tension
  • fibre tension directly affects
    • fibre volume fraction
    • void content
    • and, in turn, influences the strength and stiffness of the composite part.
  • difficult to maintain tension on flat surfaces
    • axial winding nota preferred orientation on cylinders.
filament winding impregnation
Filament winding - impregnation
  • resin impregnation

image from http://www.pultrex.com/images/productimages/resin2.jpg

filament winding winding patterns
Filament winding - winding patterns
  • hoop (90º) a.k.a girth or circumferential winding
    • angle is normally just below 90° degrees
    • each complete rotation of the mandrel shifts the fibre band to lie alongside the previous band.
  • helical
    • complete fibre coverage without the bandhaving to lie adjacent to that previously laid.
  • polar
    • domed ends or spherical components
    • fibres constrained by bosses on each pole of the component.
  • axial (0º)
    • beware: difficult to maintain fibre tension
filament winding winding patterns9
Filament winding - winding patterns

hoop : helical:

polar:

images from:

http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acfil1.jpg

http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acfil2.jpg

http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acfil3.jpg

filament winding winding pattern
Filament winding - winding pattern
  • Kevlar component

image from http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acfil5.jpg

filament winding geodesic path
Filament winding - geodesic path
  • simplest fibre orientation is the geodesic path
    • assumes non-slip winding
  • once winding has commenced,fixed fibre path at any point dictated by the Clairaut angle ( r.sin a = constant)
    • where r is local radius, a is local angle
  • at bosses, a = arcsin (rb/r)
    • where rb = angle at the boss (polar opening)
  • exploiting friction, it is possible to achieve non-geodesic winding within limits.
lattice structures anisogrid
Lattice structures (anisogrid)
  • can be produced by partial coverage and careful choice of relative band positions

image from Vasiliev et al, Composite Structures, 2001, 54(2-3).

filament winding applications
Filament winding - applications
  • pressure vessels, storage tanks and pipes
  • rocket motors, launch tubes
    • Light Anti-armour Weapon (LAW)
      • Hunting Engineering made a nesting pair in 4 minuteswith ~20 mandrels circulated through the machineand a continuous curing oven.
  • drive shafts
  • Entec “the world’s largest five-axis filament winding machine” for wind turbine blades
    • length 45.7 m, diameter 8.2 m, weight > 36 tonnes.
afp automated fibre placement
AFP: automated fibre placement
  • multi-axis robot wet-winds fibrearound a series of pins(or similar restraints within a mould)in a predetermined pattern.
  • not limited by geodesic paths
  • used to produce Geoform(lattice-work with coverage in specific bands)
  • better for thermoplastic matrix composites
    • on-line consolidation and cooling permit use without the requirement for the fibre restraints.
atl automated tape laying
ATL: automated tape laying
  • computer-numerically controlled (CNC) technique laying prepreg reinforcement tape
    • Cartesian framework for gross positioning(rather than a primarily rotational axis robot)
    • rotational freedoms close to the work-piece.
  • used for thermoset or thermoplastic matrix
  • limited to flat or low curvature surfaces
  • high quality aerospace compositese.g. flight control surfaces and wing skins.
pultrusion
Pultrusion
  • continuous constant cross-section profile
  • normally thermoset (thermoplastic possible)
    • impregnate with resin
    • pull through a heated die
      • resin shrinkage reduces friction in the die
      • polyester easier to process than epoxy
  • tension control as in filament winding
  • post-die, profile air-cooled before gripped
    • hand-over-hand hydraulic clamps
    • conveyor belt/caterpillar track systems.
  • moving cut-off machine ("flying cutter")
pultrusion17
Pultrusion

production of constant cross-section profiles

Image from www.acmanet.org/pic/images/schematic.jpg (no longer online)

Videos: Soc.Mfg.Eng (1’18”)Strongwell (1’32)

pultrusion design
Pultrusion - design
  • manuals by Quinn and Hartley
  • seek uniform thickness in order to achieve uniform coolingand hence minimise residual stress.
  • hollow profiles require a cantilevered mandrel to enter the die from the fibre-feed end.
pultrusion applications
Pultrusion -applications
  • panels – beams – gratings – ladders
  • tool handles - ski poles – kites
  • electrical insulators and enclosures
  • light poles - hand rails – roll-up doors
  • 450 km of cable trays in the Channel Tunnel
  • plus ...
pultrusion accs composolite
Pultrusion (ACCS/Composolite®)
  • Advanced Composite Construction System
    • components: plank ............... and connectors
    • used in Aberfeldy and Bonds Mill Lock bridges

Images from .. www.ksci.com/graphics/aberf.gif ..and.. www.stroudwater.co.uk/cpsn/bonds%20mill%20bridge%203.jpg (no longer online)

pultrusion variations of process
Pultrusion - variations of process
  • pulwinding/pulbraiding:fibres are wound onto the core of the pultrusion before it enters the heated die.
  • pulforming:the profile is subjected to post-die shaping.
tube rolling
Tube rolling
  • a technique where pre-preg isformed onto a tapered mandreland consolidated using shrink-wrap.
  • most often used to make fishing rod blanks