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MALAISE 1974-1980. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA ( TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY"). ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY WHY MALAISE? WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980? LONG-RANGE

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malaise 1974 1980

MALAISE1974-1980

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

(TALKING HEADS, "THE BIG COUNTRY")

slide2

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

  • TODAY
  • WHY MALAISE?
  • WHAT LED TO THE CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION OF 1980?
  • LONG-RANGE
  • HOW HAS THE AMERICAN IDENTITY (SELF-IMAGE) CHANGED THROUGHOUT OUR HISTORY, AND WHY?
  • WHEN DID THE ERA OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM BEGIN AND END, AND WHY?
slide3

WE WENT THROUGH THE VERY DIVISIVE AND VIOLENT 1960s

  • WE LOST A WAR FOR THE FIRST TIME
  • A PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT WERE FORCED TO RESIGN FOR THE FIRST TIME
  • CREDIBILITY GAP
  • WOUND UP WITH UNELECTED PRESIDENT, VEEP - ONE TERM
  • THEN INEXPERIENCED CHANGE PRESIDENT – ONE TERM
  • AS ALWAYS, "IT'S THE ECONOMY, STUPID!"
  • BUT INSTEAD OF GROWING MORE RADICAL, MOST PEOPLE GREW MORE CONSERVATIVE
slide5

GERALD W. FORD – ONE TERM!

  • UNELECTED
  • NIXON PARDON
  • OPEC OIL EMBARGO
  • INFLATION/ STAGFLATION
  • RECESSION OF 1974
  • WIN
  • FED INCREASED INTEREST RATES
  • TAX CUTS "TO CREATE JOBS"
  •  DEFICITS!
  •  MORE WOMEN AND CHILDREN WORKING
slide7

1971 – 70 -- DÉTENTE

  • 1. NIXON, TAKING THE ADVICE OF HIS SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER, VISITED CHINA IN 1971 AND RUSSIA IN 1972 TO OPEN MORE FRIENDLY DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS AND BEGIN U.S. TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA AND THE SOVIET UNION.
  • 2. THIS POLICY IS KNOWN AS DÉTENTE, A FRENCH WORD THAT MEANS RELAXATION, AS OF TENSION.
  • 3. THIS LED TO A SERIES OF NUCLEAR TEST BAN AND NON-PROLIFERATION TREATIES, ETC., WITH THE TWO COMMUNIST POWERS.
  • 4. AFTER THIS THERE WAS LITTLE RISK THAT THE COLD WAR WOULD BECOME HOT, BUT IT WAS NOT OVER.
slide9

DOMESTIC POLICY/ ISSUES

  • “NEW FEDERALISM” – GOAL = DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE STATE CONTROL, “REVENUE SHARING”
  • DEM. CONGRESS – NOT MUCH SUCCESS – BUT VETOES OF PUBLIC WORKS
  • BUT:
  • NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (1970)
  • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (1970)
  • AMTRAK 1970
slide10

Stagflation – Inflation + high unemployment

NIXON STARTED OUT IN MILTON FRIEDMAN SCHOOL, BECAME “KEYNESIAN” BIG SPENDER. $23.3 BILLION BUDGET – BUT TAX CUTS, LOWER INTEREST RATES, WAGE FREEZES, COLAS, “STOCKPILING DEMAND”  BEGINNING OF STAGFLATION, TRADE DEFICIT

slide12

CREEP (COMMITTEE TO RE-ELECT THE PRESIDENT) OPERATIVES BREAK INTO DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE HQ JUNE 17, 1982

  • WASHINGTON POST STORIES REVEAL CREEP INVOLVEMENT, WH STAFF INVOLVEMENT JULY-AUGUST 1972 – JUST THREE MONTHS BEFORE 1972 ELECTION
slide13

CARL BERNSTEIN AND BOB WOODWARD

MARK “DEEP THROAT” FELD

G. GORDON LIDDY

slide14

JOHN EHRLICHMAN, BOB HALDEMAN AND

ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL WITH HIS CHATTY WIFE, MARTHA

ALL THREE MEN WENT TO PRISON

slide16

SEPTEMBER 1972: INDICTMENTS OF BURGLARS, CREEP – ALL OVER MEDIA THAT ATTORNEY GENERAL JOHN MITCHELL INVOLVED (SLUSH FUND)

  • BUT: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1972 -- LANDSLIDE
slide17

THE “SNITCH”: WHITE HOUSE COUNSEL JOHN DEAN:

“THERE IS A CANCER ON THE PRESIDENCY”

slide18
Senate Select Committees on Campaign PracticEs, Chairman Sam Ervin, D-NC - TELEVISED HEARINGS MARCH 23 – EVERYONE GLUED TO TV!
slide21

UNITED STATES V. NIXON, 1974. BURGER COURT! SUPREME COURT REJECTED NIXON’S CLAM OF “EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE”  NIXON HAD TO TURN OVER TAPES,

  • WHOOPS! 18-MINUTE GAP IN “SMOKING GUN” TAPE!

NIXON’S SECRETARY ROSE MARIE WOODS DEMONSTRATES HOW SHE COULD HAVE ERASED PART OF TAPE ACCIDENTALLY

but the smoking gun tape wasn t erased
BUT “THE Smoking Gun” TAPE WASN’T ERASED!
  • June 23, 1972 White House tape: Nixon orders FBI to call off investigation of Watergate, Claims Watergate a CIA covert operation
  • Other tapes show Nixon approved of payment of “hush money”
slide26

WHY DID THE PUBLIC TURN ON NIXON? NOTE THAT HIS POPULARITY BEGAN TO WANE RIGHT AFTER THE VIETNAM ACCORD

slide29

GERALD R. FORD

  • PARDONED NIXON
  • TRICKLE-DOWN ATTEMPT TO DEFEAT STAGFLATION
  • UNEMPLOYMENT UP, WAGES DOWN  MORE “TWO EARNER” COUPLES (MORE WOMEN WORKING)
  • AID TO SADDAM HUSSEIN IN IRAN-IRAQ WAR
slide30

FORD’S RATIONALE FOR PARDONING NIXON

“After years of bitter controversy and divisive national debate, I have been advised, and I am compelled to conclude that many months and perhaps more years will have to pass before Richard Nixon could obtain a fair trial by jury in any jurisdiction of the United States under governing decisions of the Supreme Court.

During this long period of delay and potential litigation, ugly passions would again be aroused. And our people would again be polarized in their opinions. And the credibility of our free institutions of government would again be challenged at home and abroad.”

slide32

REMEMBER THIS CHART? % 0F NATIONAL WEALTH HELD BY TOP 1% WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s. TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4 (DUE TO BUSH TAX CUTS, GREAT RECESSION OF 2007 AND BANK/ CORPORATE BAILOUTS)

slide35

OIL PRICES -- WHEN THEY GO UP SO DO THE PRICES OF ALMOST ALL OTHER GOODS (ALL THAT MUST BE TRANSPORTED!)

1973 – OPEC OIL EMBARGO

1979 – OIL CRISIS DUE TO IRANIAN REVOLUTION

DOUBLE-DIGIT INFLATION

slide40

DECLINE OF SKILLED INDUSTRIAL JOBS – DUE TO DECLINE OF SOME INDUSTRIES IN U.S. AND TO TECHNOLOGY

slide42

"WHIP INFLATION NOW" – FORD DECLARED INFLATION "PUBLIC ENEMY NUMBER ONE" – AND ENCOURAGED THE PUBLIC TO FIX IT! = A FAILURE

"STUPID IDEA" ACCORDING TO ALAN GREENSPAN

slide43

THE HUMILIATING LOSS OF THE VIETNAM WAR

April 30, 1975

U.S. EVACUATES SAIGON EMBASSY – THROUGH THE ROOF INTO HELICOPTERS WITH NORTH VIETNAM ARMY AT THE GATE!

the costs of the vietnam war
The Costs OF THE VIETNAM WAR
  • 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed
  • 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded – 2,583 POW/ MIA (STILL)
  • Under-funding of Great Society programs
  • $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending
  • U.S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government, decimated -- WE LOST A WAR!
slide47

1976: JIMMY CARTER AND WALTER MONDALE (ONLY 50.1% OF POPULAR VOTE)

CARTER'S MAIN QUALIFICATION: NOT A WASHINGTON INSIDER (GEORGIA GOVERNOR, PEANUNT FARMER AND NUCLEAR ENGINEER)

slide50

CARTER:

  • ENERGY CRISIS: "MEOW" – THE MORAL EQUIVALENT OF WAR
  • DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 1977
  • national energy act, 1978
  • DEREGULATION OF OIL PRICES, TAX SUBSIDIES (ENERGY POLICY ACT)
  • 1979 – WINDFALL oil PROFITS TAX (excise tax)
  • surface coal mining and reclamation act.
  • Opposition to nuclear energy
slide51

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) -- superfund

  • deregulation of TRANSPORTATION RATES (STAGGERS RAIL ACT, 1979, MOTOR CARRIER ACT, 1980)
  • WORSE INFLATION – in 1979 FED under paulvolcker IMPOSED DOUBLE-DIGIT INTEREST RATES ( SLOWDOWN but controlled inflation during reagan era)
  • RECESSION, 1978
  • PANAMA CANAL TREATY, 1978
  • IRANIAN REVOLUTION, 1979
slide52

1979: “THE MALAISE SPEECH” – phd 29-9. american identity! Carter said nation was strong militarily and economically, but a major threat was:

  • “crisis of confidence” and of “national will” – “loss of unity of purpose of our nation”
  • “erosion of our confidence in the future” -- most people thought future would be worse than present, didn’t bother to vote
slide53

“In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close-knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we've discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning.”

slide54

carter’s proposed solution?

  • “have faith” – pull together.
  • Save energy:
  • Use carpools, turn down thermostat, don’t take unnecessary trips, etc.
slide56

National organization for the reform of marijuana laws, 1970 - present

Illegal drugs, especially marijuana, remained very popular AND MOSTLY TOLERATED in the 1970s (ACROSS AGE AND SOCIAL LINE) BUT BY END OF DECADE MORE AMERICANS (≈ 70% TOLD POLLSTERS THAT DRUGS WERE A PROBLEM IN SOCIETY

slide61

ELECTION OF 1980

  • REAGAN POSITIONS:
  • ECONOMY:
  • "SUPPLY-SIDE" ECONOMICS – CUT TAXES  STIMULATE BUSINESS AND EFFECTS WOULD "TRICKLE-DOWN" TO CREATE JOBS AND PROSPERITY FOR EVERYONE
  • DISMANTLE GREAT SOCIETY, MORE POWER TO STATES ("NEW FEDERALISM") AND BALANCE BUDGET
  • IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: GET THEM FREED
  • FOREIGN POLICY: INCREASE MILITARY AGAINST "EVIL EMPIRE"
slide62

WOMEN'S RIGHTS:

  • OPPOSED ABORTION (ABOUT WHICH PRESIDENTS CAN DO NOTHING
  • NEITHER PRESIDENTS NOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS NOR STATE POLITICIANS CAN BAN ABORTION -- WHY DO THEY ALWAYS HAVE TO TAKE POSITIONS ON IT IN CAMPAIGNS?
  • PROMISED TO APPOINT WOMAN SUPREME COURT JUSTICE
  • SCHOOL PRAYER: SUPPORTED IT – SAME QUESTION AS ABOUT ABORTION!
slide64

IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE THE POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC, FACTORS LEADING TO THE "CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION" OF 1980.

GO TO THE BOARD AND WRITE THE REASONS!

slide66

70s MUSIC – DISCO = DANCE MUSIC.

Dancing very popular (compare great depression)

The bee gees – "stayin' alive," "more than a woman"

Thelma houston, "don't leave me this waY"

slide67

BIGGEST ROCK STAR OF 70s:

THE BOSS

BRUCE SPRINSTEEN

“BORN TO RUN”

LISTEN TO LYRICS – THEY’RE GLOOMY, REFLECT MALAISE OF THE PERIOD

slide68

COUNTRY ROCK – REFLECTS INCREASES INFLUENCE OF THE SUN BELT

THE EAGLES

MOST POPULAR EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE UNORIGINAL AND SUCK

“TAKE IT TO THE LIMIT”