enhancing lecture classes with active and cooperative learning n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 59

Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning. Karl A. Smith Civil Engineering University of Minnesota ksmith@umn.edu http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith West Virginia University January 7, 2005.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning' - gustav

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
enhancing lecture classes with active and cooperative learning

Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning

Karl A. SmithCivil Engineering University of Minnesotaksmith@umn.eduhttp://www.ce.umn.edu/~smithWest Virginia UniversityJanuary 7, 2005


To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively

Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Edited by C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1991.

formulate share listen create think pair share
Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Think-Pair-Share)
  • Individually read the quote “To teach is to engage students in learning. . .”
  • Underline/Highlight words and/or phrase that stand out for you
  • Turn to the person next to you and talk about words and/or phrases that stood out


the current situation

The Current Situation

Classes with Over 50 students B Prevalent and Increasing; ditto for Classes with Over 100 students Classes of 50 students or more:Best National Universities (Top 50) B 1-28%, Avg = 12.4, S.D. = 6.3National Universities (Next 50) B 0.3-50%, Avg = 12.1, S.D. = 7.7U.S. News & World Report (www.usnews.com (Accessed 10/16/00)

instructional approach

Instructional Approach

Gardiner(1994) report that 73-83 percent of college instructors surveyed identified the lecture method as their usual instructional strategy

large classes how well are they working

Large Classes: How Well are They Working?

Carbone and Greenberg (1998) indicate a general dissatisfaction with the quality of large-class learning experiences

Lack of interaction with faculty members (in and out of class

Lack of structure in lectures

Lack of or poor discussion sections

Inadequate contact with teaching assistants

Inadequacy of classroom facilities and environment

Lack of frequent testing or graded assignments

large classes how well are they working students comments

Large Classes:How Well are They Working?Students= Comments

Wulff, Nyquist & Abbott (1987):$AIt is easier to do anything you want, sleep, not attend, or lose attention@$ANo one knows I=m here@$ARude people come late, leave early, or sit and talk to their buddies@

backdrop recent reports

National Research Council Reports:

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999).

How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice (2000).

Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment (2001).

The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education (2002). Chapter 6 – Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn

Backdrop – Recent Reports

Pedago-pathologies B Lee Shulman




Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.


What do we do about these pathologies? B Lee Shulman





Combined with generative content and the creation of powerful learning communities

Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.


Tracking Change - Seymour

"The greatest single challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the problem of whether and how large classes can be infused with more active and interactive learning methods."

Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the processes of change in US undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.


Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning Community

Success Story

Reflect on and Talk about your Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning Community Success(es)

1. Context?

2. Structure/Procedure?

3. Outcome?


Getting Students Actively Involved Using Cooperative Learning: Principles, Strategies, and Problem-Solving

What is it? How do you do it? Why bother?

active learning cooperation in the college classroom
Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

See Cooperative Learning

Handout (CL College-804.doc)



Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).

Key Concepts

!Positive Interdependence

!Individual and Group Accountability

!Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction

!Teamwork Skills

!Group Processing


Retention Research

Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences

by Elaine Seymour & Nancy M. Hewitt

Westview, 430 pages, 1997.

Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures

of student attrition (Second edition)

by Vincent Tinto

University of Chicago Press, 1993, 296 pages.

The Chilly Classroom Climate:

A Guide to Improve the Education of Women

by Bernice Sandler, Lisa A. Silverberg & Roberta M. Hall

National Association for Women in Education,

125 pages, 1996.


Talking about leaving:

  • Why undergraduates leave the sciences
  • "Field switching is only the tip of an iceberg: The same set of problems that prompt some science, mathematics, and engineering undergraduates to leave make persistence difficult for those who stay." (Cover jacket).
  • "Contrary to the common assumption that most switching is caused by personal inadequacy in the face of academic challenge, one strong finding is the high proportion of factors cited as significant in switching decisions which arise either from structural or cultural sources within institutions, or from students' concerns about their career prospects (p. 32)." The four most commonly cited concerns leading to switching decisions (also cited by between 31 and 74 percent of the non-switchers) were:
  • Lack or loss of interest in science
  • Belief that a non-S.M.E. major holds more interest, or offers a better education
  • Poor teaching by S.M.E. faculty
  • Feeling overwhelmed by the pace and load of curriculum demands.

Students' voices:

I do work hard, and my average load over these four years--even when I was transferring out--has been 17, 18 hours a semester, plus a couple of night classes sometimes. It doesn't really bother me to work that hard. But when it's a concept I don't understand and I go to get help from faculty and they just don't give it, that's discouraging. (Male white engineering switcher)

What bothers me is the number of people who know what engineering is about, and really have the capability to do well and be good in the field, but end up going a different way for reasons other than the lack of ability. (Female white engineering non-switcher).

You get people that would probably do well if they were given half a chance, but there's so much competition, and not a heck of a lot of help. (Female black engineering senior).

The first two years in physics are so dull. I mean, they have absolutely nothing to do with what you'll be doing later. I'm afraid that's why you might be losing good students from engineering that are really qualified and have the intelligence. . .There are ways to make the introductory material interesting so that it doesn't drive away good people through boredom. (Male white engineering non-switcher).


Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology

Goal BAll students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry.

Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student's experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long learning skills into learning experiences.


Book Ends on A Class Session

  • 1.Advance Organizer
  • 2.Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your- neighbor) B repeated every 10-12 minutes
  • 3.Session Summary (Minute Paper)
    • 1.What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?
    • 2.What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?
    • 3.What was the Amuddiest@ point in this session?

Advance Organizer

AThe most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.@

David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.

knowledge probe
Knowledge Probe
  • Example from MOT 8221
  • What would you like to know about the students in your courses?


quick thinks

Quick Thinks

PReorder the steps

PParaphrase the idea

PCorrect the error

PSupport a statement

PSelect the response

Johnston, S. & Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks: Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative learning and college teaching, 8(1), 2-7.



  • Informal Cooperative Learning Group
  • Introductory Pair Discussion of a
  • Formulate your response to the question individually
  • Share your answer with a partner
  • Listen carefully to your partner's answer
  • Work together to Create a new answer through discussion
minute paper
What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?

What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?

What was the “muddiest” point in this session?

Give an example or application

Explain in your own words . . .

Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Minute Paper

Informal CL (Book Ends on a Lecture) with Concept Tests


Peer Instruction

Eric Mazur - Harvard B http://galileo.harvard.edu

Peer Instruction www.prenhall.com

Richard Hake


Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison B www.chem.wisc.edu/~concept

Video: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests

ModularChem Consortium B http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/


Video: How Change Happens: Breaking the ATeach as You Were Taught@ Cycle B Films for the Humanities & Sciences B www.films.com

Thinking Together video: Derek Bok Center B www.fas.harvard.edu/~bok_cen/


Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs traditional methods) http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/

Traditional (lecture)

Interactive (active/cooperative)

<g> = Concept Inventory Gain/Total

the hake plot of fci




UMn Cooperative Groups

UMn Traditional

The “Hake” Plot of FCI
























Pretest (Percent)

physics mechanics concepts the force concept inventory fci
Physics (Mechanics) Concepts:The Force Concept Inventory (FCI)
  • A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.
  • The choice of topics is based on careful thought about what the fundamental issues and concepts are in Newtonian dynamics.
  • Uses common speech rather than cueing specific physics principles.
  • The distractors (wrong answers) are based on students' common inferences.

Informal Cooperative

Learning Groups

Can be used at any time

Can be short term and ad hoc

May be used to break up a long lecture

Provides an opportunity for students to process material they have been listening to (Cognitive Rehearsal)

Are especially effective in large lectures

Include "book ends" procedure

Are not as effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or Cooperative Base Groups


Strategies for Energizing Large Classes: From Small Groups to

Learning Communities:

Jean MacGregor,

James Cooper,

Karl Smith,

Pamela Robinson

New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 81, 2000.

Jossey- Bass


From Small Groups to Learning Communities: Energizing Large Classes

1.The argument for making large classes seem small

2.Getting started: Informal small-group strategies in large classes

3.Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes

4.Restructuring large classes to create communities of learners

5.Implementing small-group learning: Insights from successful practitioners

6.Making small-group learning and learning communities a widespread reality

theoretical and empirical rationale for using small groups

Theoretical and Empirical Rationale for Using Small Groups

$Promoting Cognitive Elaboration$Enhancing Critical Thinking$Providing Feedback$Promoting Social and Emotional Development$Appreciating Diversity$Reducing Student Attrition

getting started informal small group strategies in large classes

Getting Started: Informal Small- Group Strategies in Large Classes

$Launching the Class in Discussion Applications of Small-Group Approaches$Breaking Up the Lecture for Comprehension Checks$Closing Class with Small-Group Conversation$Reviewing for Exams$Debriefing Exams$Deepening Audiovisual Presentations$Predicting Processes and Outcomes of Demonstrations


Cooperative Learning Research Support

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35.

• Over 300 Experimental Studies

• First study conducted in 1924

• High Generalizability

• Multiple Outcomes


1.Achievement and retention

2.Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning

3.Differentiated views of others

4.Accurate understanding of others' perspectives

5.Liking for classmates and teacher

6.Liking for subject areas

7.Teamwork skills

small group learning meta analysis
Small-Group Learning: Meta- analysis

Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. 1999. Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21-52.

Small-group (predominantly cooperative) learning in postsecondary science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET). 383 reports from 1980 or later, 39 of which met the rigorous inclusion criteria for meta-analysis.

The main effect of small-group learning on achievement, persistence, and attitudes among undergraduates in SMET was significant and positive. Mean effect sizes for achievement, persistence, and attitudes were 0.51, 0.46, and 0.55, respectively.


The Harvard Assessment SeminarsB Richard J. Light

All the specific findings point to, and illustrate, one main idea. It is that students who get the most out of college, who grow the most academically, and who are the happiest, organize their time to include interpersonal activities with faculty members, or with fellow students, built around substantive, academic work.

Environmental Factors That Enhance Students= Academic

and Personal Development and Satisfaction

Alexander Astin in What matters in college:

Four critical years revisited. Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Student-student interaction

Student-faculty interaction

A faculty that is very student-oriented

Discussing racial/ethnic issues with other students

Hours devoted to studying B Time on task

Tutoring other students

Socializing with students of different race/ethnicity

A student body that has high socioeconomic status

An institutional emphasis on diversity

A faculty that is positive about the general education program

A student body that values altruism and social activism


Making the Most of College

Richard J. Light

Harvard University Press (2001)

1. Meet the faculty

2. Take a mix of courses

3. Study in groups

4. Write, write, write

5. Speak another language

6. Consider time

7. Hold the drum


Session Summary

  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session:
  • What were the most important points for you?
  • What is one thing you would be willing to try?
  • What questions do you have?
  • Discuss with a partner:
  • 1.Points that were useful, meaningful, interesting, applicable, etc.
  • 2.Questions that you have.

Formal Cooperative Learning

  • Jigsaw
  • 2. Peer Composition or Editing
  • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation
  • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation
  • 5. Review/Correct Homework
  • 6. Constructive Academic Controversy
  • 7. Group Tests
challenged based learning
Challenged-Based Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Learning by design
  • Inquiry learning
  • Anchored instruction

John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn


Professor's Role in

  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Specifying Objectives
  • Making Decisions
  • Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and Individual Accountability
  • Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills
  • Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group Effectiveness

Cooperative Learning Task Groups

Perkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's Round

Table: How collaborative conversations create

smart organizations. NY: Wiley.


Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format

TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project.

INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy.

COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.

EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints.

INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each problem.

EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members.

INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group.

cooperative base groups
Cooperative Base Groups
  • Are Heterogeneous
  • Are Long Term (at least one quarter or semester)
  • Are Small (3-5 members)
  • Are for support
  • May meet at the beginning of each session or may meet between sessions
  • Review for quizzes, tests, etc. together
  • Share resources, references, etc. for individual projects
  • Provide a means for covering for absentees