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Enhancing Lecture Classes with Active and Cooperative Learning. Karl A. Smith Civil Engineering University of Minnesota firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith West Virginia University January 7, 2005.
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Karl A. SmithCivil Engineering University of Minnesotaksmith@umn.eduhttp://www.ce.umn.edu/~smithWest Virginia UniversityJanuary 7, 2005
To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical conditions under which students agree to take charge of their own learning, individually and collectively
Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Edited by C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1991.
Classes with Over 50 students B Prevalent and Increasing; ditto for Classes with Over 100 students Classes of 50 students or more:Best National Universities (Top 50) B 1-28%, Avg = 12.4, S.D. = 6.3National Universities (Next 50) B 0.3-50%, Avg = 12.1, S.D. = 7.7U.S. News & World Report (www.usnews.com (Accessed 10/16/00)
Gardiner(1994) report that 73-83 percent of college instructors surveyed identified the lecture method as their usual instructional strategy
Carbone and Greenberg (1998) indicate a general dissatisfaction with the quality of large-class learning experiences
Lack of interaction with faculty members (in and out of class
Lack of structure in lectures
Lack of or poor discussion sections
Inadequate contact with teaching assistants
Inadequacy of classroom facilities and environment
Lack of frequent testing or graded assignments
Wulff, Nyquist & Abbott (1987):$AIt is easier to do anything you want, sleep, not attend, or lose attention@$ANo one knows I=m here@$ARude people come late, leave early, or sit and talk to their buddies@
How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (1999).
How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice (2000).
Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment (2001).
The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education (2002). Chapter 6 – Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People LearnBackdrop – Recent Reports
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
Combined with generative content and the creation of powerful learning communities
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
"The greatest single challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the problem of whether and how large classes can be infused with more active and interactive learning methods."
Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the processes of change in US undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.
Reflect on and Talk about your Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning Community Success(es)
Getting Students Actively Involved Using Cooperative Learning: Principles, Strategies, and Problem-Solving
What is it? How do you do it? Why bother?
See Cooperative Learning
Handout (CL College-804.doc)
Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves people working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that involve both positive interdependence (all members must cooperate to complete the task) and individual and group accountability (each member is accountable for the complete final outcome).
!Individual and Group Accountability
!Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction
Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences
by Elaine Seymour & Nancy M. Hewitt
Westview, 430 pages, 1997.
Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures
of student attrition (Second edition)
by Vincent Tinto
University of Chicago Press, 1993, 296 pages.
The Chilly Classroom Climate:
A Guide to Improve the Education of Women
by Bernice Sandler, Lisa A. Silverberg & Roberta M. Hall
National Association for Women in Education,
125 pages, 1996.
I do work hard, and my average load over these four years--even when I was transferring out--has been 17, 18 hours a semester, plus a couple of night classes sometimes. It doesn't really bother me to work that hard. But when it's a concept I don't understand and I go to get help from faculty and they just don't give it, that's discouraging. (Male white engineering switcher)
What bothers me is the number of people who know what engineering is about, and really have the capability to do well and be good in the field, but end up going a different way for reasons other than the lack of ability. (Female white engineering non-switcher).
You get people that would probably do well if they were given half a chance, but there's so much competition, and not a heck of a lot of help. (Female black engineering senior).
The first two years in physics are so dull. I mean, they have absolutely nothing to do with what you'll be doing later. I'm afraid that's why you might be losing good students from engineering that are really qualified and have the intelligence. . .There are ways to make the introductory material interesting so that it doesn't drive away good people through boredom. (Male white engineering non-switcher).
Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology
Goal BAll students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry.
Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student's experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long learning skills into learning experiences.
AThe most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.@
David Ausubel - Educational psychology: A cognitive approach, 1968.
PReorder the steps
PParaphrase the idea
PCorrect the error
PSupport a statement
PSelect the response
Johnston, S. & Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks: Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised instruction. Cooperative learning and college teaching, 8(1), 2-7.
What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?
What was the “muddiest” point in this session?
Give an example or application
Explain in your own words . . .
Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Minute Paper
Eric Mazur - Harvard B http://galileo.harvard.edu
Peer Instruction www.prenhall.com
Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison B www.chem.wisc.edu/~concept
Video: Making Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests
ModularChem Consortium B http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/
Video: How Change Happens: Breaking the ATeach as You Were Taught@ Cycle B Films for the Humanities & Sciences B www.films.com
Thinking Together video: Derek Bok Center B www.fas.harvard.edu/~bok_cen/
Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs traditional methods) http://www.physics.indiana.edu/~hake/
<g> = Concept Inventory Gain/Total
Can be used at any time
Can be short term and ad hoc
May be used to break up a long lecture
Provides an opportunity for students to process material they have been listening to (Cognitive Rehearsal)
Are especially effective in large lectures
Include "book ends" procedure
Are not as effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or Cooperative Base Groups
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 81, 2000.
1.The argument for making large classes seem small
2.Getting started: Informal small-group strategies in large classes
3.Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes
4.Restructuring large classes to create communities of learners
5.Implementing small-group learning: Insights from successful practitioners
6.Making small-group learning and learning communities a widespread reality
$Promoting Cognitive Elaboration$Enhancing Critical Thinking$Providing Feedback$Promoting Social and Emotional Development$Appreciating Diversity$Reducing Student Attrition
$Launching the Class in Discussion Applications of Small-Group Approaches$Breaking Up the Lecture for Comprehension Checks$Closing Class with Small-Group Conversation$Reviewing for Exams$Debriefing Exams$Deepening Audiovisual Presentations$Predicting Processes and Outcomes of Demonstrations
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35.
• Over 300 Experimental Studies
• First study conducted in 1924
• High Generalizability
• Multiple Outcomes
1.Achievement and retention
2.Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning
3.Differentiated views of others
4.Accurate understanding of others' perspectives
5.Liking for classmates and teacher
6.Liking for subject areas
Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. 1999. Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21-52.
Small-group (predominantly cooperative) learning in postsecondary science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET). 383 reports from 1980 or later, 39 of which met the rigorous inclusion criteria for meta-analysis.
The main effect of small-group learning on achievement, persistence, and attitudes among undergraduates in SMET was significant and positive. Mean effect sizes for achievement, persistence, and attitudes were 0.51, 0.46, and 0.55, respectively.
All the specific findings point to, and illustrate, one main idea. It is that students who get the most out of college, who grow the most academically, and who are the happiest, organize their time to include interpersonal activities with faculty members, or with fellow students, built around substantive, academic work.
Environmental Factors That Enhance Students= Academic
and Personal Development and Satisfaction
Alexander Astin in What matters in college:
Four critical years revisited. Jossey-Bass, 1993.
A faculty that is very student-oriented
Discussing racial/ethnic issues with other students
Hours devoted to studying B Time on task
Tutoring other students
Socializing with students of different race/ethnicity
A student body that has high socioeconomic status
An institutional emphasis on diversity
A faculty that is positive about the general education program
A student body that values altruism and social activism
Richard J. Light
Harvard University Press (2001)
1. Meet the faculty
2. Take a mix of courses
3. Study in groups
4. Write, write, write
5. Speak another language
6. Consider time
7. Hold the drum
John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman. Creating High-Quality Learning Environments: Guidelines from Research on How People Learn
Perkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's Round
Table: How collaborative conversations create
smart organizations. NY: Wiley.
TASK: Solve the problem(s) or Complete the project.
INDIVIDUAL: Estimate answer. Note strategy.
COOPERATIVE: One set of answers from the group, strive for agreement, make sure everyone is able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.
EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Everyone must be able to explain the strategies used to solve each problem.
EVALUATION: Best answer within available resources or constraints.
INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: One member from your group may be randomly chosen to explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each problem.
EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: Active participating, checking, encouraging, and elaborating by all members.
INTERGROUP COOPERATION: Whenever it is helpful, check procedures, answers, and strategies with another group.