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Workstations, UNIX, and the Net, 1981 -1995 . Introduction UNIX: From NEW Jersey to California The Ironies of UNIX VAX Strategy RISC Networking I: Ethernet Networking II: Internet Networking III: WWW Gopher, WAIS. Workstations, UNIX, and the Net, 1981 -1995 . WWW, Mosaic Conclusion

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workstations unix and the net 1981 1995
Workstations, UNIX, and the Net, 1981 -1995
  • Introduction
  • UNIX: From NEW Jersey to California
  • The Ironies of UNIX
  • VAX Strategy
  • RISC
  • Networking I: Ethernet
  • Networking II: Internet
  • Networking III: WWW
  • Gopher, WAIS
workstations unix and the net 1981 19951
Workstations, UNIX, and the Net, 1981 -1995
  • WWW, Mosaic
  • Conclusion
  • When Things Start to Think
introduction
Introduction
  • Workstations – what they are
  • Workstations – inexpensive microprocessor - the Motorola 68000
  • Workstations architecture and design similar to the PC
  • Workstations use of UNIX O/S, with a extensive networking abilities, and I/O peripherals
  • Bill Poduska- founder of Apollo – delivered the first product that used the Motorola microprocessor and its own NOS – called Domain
  • Price began at $40,000
  • Competition
  • Wang, Xerox, HP 9000
unix from new jersey to california
UNIX: From New Jersey to California
  • UNIX was created at the Bell Lab in New Jersey
  • Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie goal for UNIX was the ability to easily share files and use as a programming tool
  • UNIX intended for universities
  • UNIX powerful and flexible
  • UNIX is portable
  • Flavors of UNIX – like Berkeley UNIX - led to better UNIX development – such as TCP/IP- the Internet
the ironies of unix
The Ironies of UNIX
  • UNIX for researchers
  • UNIX versions
    • Berkeley UNIX developed on the VAX
    • UNIX on VAX running TCP/IP, helped transformed the restricted ARPANET to the Internet
  • UNIX as “open system”
  • UNIX never challenged the dominance of MS-O/Ss – why?
  • SUN Microsystems took advantage of UNIX open system architecture – and standardized the Ethernet
vax strategy
VAX Strategy
  • PC Computers – DOS and Macintosh
  • Workstations and mini and mainframe computers
  • VAX promised to offered all part of its system to customer (software and hardware)
  • DEC PDP-10 created the first illusion of PC. Its TOPS-10 O/S inspired PC system software
  • VAX strategy to supply complete system for its customers worked well through the 1980s
  • DEC and IBM
slide7
RISC
  • CISC – Complex Instruction Set Computer) – computer CPUs of the 70s, 80s, System/390 and Intel X/86 families
  • RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computer) – many of today’s CPUs are designed around the RISC architecture
  • RISC architecture is an attempt to produce more CPU power by simplifying the instruction set of the CPU
  • RISC was developed at Berkeley in 1980 by a group led by David Patterson
  • MIPS – another project at Stanford led by John Hennessy
networking i ethernet
Networking I: Ethernet
  • Ethernet – networked computers on a local level – department within building
  • The Ethernet was invented at Xerox-PARC in 1973 by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs
  • UNIX – workstations networking
  • IBM – PC- DOS networking
  • Networking II: Internet
  • Computer networking
  • Internet descended from the ARPANET
  • Internet uses “packet switching” – where messages (data) are broken into packets of envelope
networking ii internet
Networking II: Internet
  • Networking II: Internet
  • Internet – message transmission does not require a dedicated connection between computers
  • Internet is not a single network – it is the connection of many different networks across the globe
  • Internet networks (some open or closed)
  • Internet communication over the networks is through the use of TCP/IP
  • Internet users address (.gov, .edu, .mil, .net, .com, and .org)
networking iii www
Networking III: WWW
  • World Wide Web
  • Internet activities were initially on the ARPANET – it enable users to do
    • Remote log on
    • Transfer large files (machine to machine)
    • Send e-mail
    • Using Telnet and FTP
  • “Virtual Community” - Internet
  • BBS – Bulletin-board system
  • Usenet – UNIX news group
  • IBM – BITNET - LISTSERV
gopher wais
Gopher, WAIS
  • Internet
  • Information library
  • Gopher was created in 1991 at the University of Minnesota – to allow students and faculty to query campus computers for school information
  • Gopher menu was based that lead to dead end
  • WAIS – Wide Area Information Service – developed by Kahle and his colleagues
  • WAIS allowed users to search the contents of files directly – via index
  • Indexing programs
world wide web mosaic
World Wide Web, Mosaic
  • WWW – was invented at CERN by Berners-Lee
  • Web fundamental concept of information gathering and dissemination is through the use of “hypertext”. Web major goal – as a shared information space for people and machines to communicate
  • Hypertext pioneer – Vannevar Bush – in 1945
    • Doug Engelbart demonstrated the prototype in 1968
    • Ted Nelson defined “hypertext” as forms of writing that branch or perform on request – best presented on display screens
world wide web mosaic1
World Wide Web, Mosaic
  • Hypertext pioneer
  • Apple HyperCard in 1987
  • Berners-Lee developed the WEB
    • Web as a information space for people and machines to communicate
    • Inclusive
    • Communication across different computers and software
  • Lee developed the URL to point to document any where in the universe of information
world wide web mosaic2
World Wide Web, Mosaic
  • Lee developed the HTTP to replace the existing FTP
  • Lee defined HTML – hypertext markup language to move hypertext across the network
  • Browser
  • Mosaic at the University of Illinois
  • Andreesen and Clark founded Mosaic communication that later became Netscape Communication Corp
  • Netscape introduce its browser in 1994
conclusion
Conclusion
  • STANDARD –
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • People - users
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • The Digitization of the World Picture
  • The computer age of transformation (1945 – 1995)
  • Computer as a fast scientific calculator
  • Eckert and Mauchly transformed it into UNIVAC –for general data processing
  • Ken Olsen made it into a real-time information processor
  • Ed Roberts transformed it into a PC that anyone could own and use
  • Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak made it useful and fun to work with
conclusion2
Conclusion
  • Gary Kildall and William Gates transformed it into a standardized platform
  • Tim Berners-Lee and others turn computer into a window to a global network
  • Today the world wide web – what will the next transformation be?
  • The Digitization of the World Picture.
  • Computer - for our use or use us.
when things start to think
When Things Start to Think
  • WHAT are things that think?
    • Books
    • Musical instruments
    • Printers
    • Money
  • WHY should things think?
    • Rights and Responsibilities
    • Computers and people
    • Intelligence (experience and reasoning)
    • Use Common sense
when things start to think1
When Things Start to Think
  • HOW to develop things that think?
    • Build on what we know naturally
    • Understand, and make it applicable
    • Study what we know and modify
    • Work together
  • THINGS THAT THINK – what they are or what they should be?