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Two tasks. Task One: Motivation and language strategy use Task Two: Plan an SBI lesson. Motivation & strategy use. WEN, Qiufang The National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU. Topics to be addressed . The relation between motivation and strategy use

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two tasks

Two tasks

Task One: Motivation and language strategy use

Task Two: Plan an SBI lesson

motivation strategy use

Motivation & strategy use

WEN, Qiufang

The National Research Center for Foreign Language Education, BFSU

topics to be addressed
Topics to be addressed
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
  • Major L2 motivation theories
  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation
  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework
  • Student demotivation
topic one
Topic One
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
common assumptions
Common assumptions
  • The autonomous learners must be motivated learners.
  • Good language strategy users must be motivated learners
research findings
Research findings
  • Motivation is a precondition for language strategy use.
  • Good strategy use may enhance motivation
topics to be addressed today
Topics to be addressed today
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
  • Major L2 motivation theories
  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation
  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework
  • Student demotivation
major l2 motivation theories
Major L2 motivation theories
  • Gardner’s theory
  • Dörneyei’s theory
the meaning of motivation
The meaning of ‘motivation
  • Concerns the direction and magnitude of human behavior
  • Why people decide to do something
  • How long they are willing to sustain the activity
  • How hard they are going to pursue it
gardner s motivation theory 1972
Gardner’s motivation theory (1972)
  • Motivational intensity
  • Desire to learn the language
  • Attitudes towards learning the language
  • Attitude/Motivation Test Battery
two types of motivation
Two types of motivation
  • Integrative motivation
  • Instrumental motivation
d rneyei s process model of l2 motivation 2000
Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation (2000)
  • Action sequence
  • Motivational influence
advantages
Advantages
  • Dynamic
  • Closely link with language teaching classroom
topics to be addressed today1
Topics to be addressed today
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
  • Motivation theories
  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation
  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework
  • Student demotivation
topic three
Topic Three

Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation

action sequence
Action sequence
  • Preactional phase
  • Action phase
  • Postactional phase
i preactional phase
I. Preactional phase
  • Choice motivation that precedes the launching of action
    • Goal setting
    • Intention formation
    • The initiation of intention enactment
goal setting
Goal setting
  • Wishes & hopes
  • Desires
  • Opportunities
intention formation
Intention formation
  • Intention
  • Commitment
  • A manageable action plan
    • Action schemata
    • The time frame
the initiation of intention enactment
The initiation of intention enactment
  • Two necessary conditions
    • Necessary means and resources
    • The start condition
ii actional phase
II. Actional phase
  • Subtask generation & implementation
  • A complex ongoing appraisal process
  • The application of a variety of action control mechanisms
iii postactional phase
III. Postactional phase
  • Causal attributions
  • Internal standards & the repertoire of action-specific strategies
motivational influences on the different action phases
Motivational influences on the different action phases
  • Motivational influences on
    • Goal setting
    • Intention formation
    • The initiation of intention enactment
    • Actions
    • Postactional evaluation
topics to be addressed today2
Topics to be addressed today
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
  • Motivation theories
  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation
  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework
  • Student demotivation
topic four
Topic Four
  • Dörnyei’s motivational framework
  • Call for education-friendly motivation research
d rnyei s motivational framework
Dörnyei’s motivational framework
  • Language level
  • Learner level
  • Learning situation level

(Dörnyei, 1994)

slide27
Why?
  • Design a comprehensive construct
  • Synthesise various lines of research
advantage 1
Advantage (1)
  • Three levels coincide with the three basic constituents of the L2 learning process
    • The target language
    • The language learner
    • The language-learning process
advantage 2
Advantage (2)
  • Reflect three different aspects of language:
    • The social dimension
    • The personal dimension
    • The educational subject-matter dimension
language level
Language level
  • Integrative motivational subsystem
  • instrumental motivational subsystem
learner level
Learner level
  • Need for achievement
  • Self-confidence
    • Language use anxiety
    • Perceived L2 competence
    • Causal attribution
learning situation level
Learning situation level
  • Course-specific motivational components
  • Teacher-specific motivational components
  • Group-specific components
course specific motivational components
Course-specific motivational components
  • Interest (in the course)
  • Relevance (of the course to one’s needs)
  • Expectancy (of success)
  • Satisfaction (one has in the outcome)
teacher specific motivational components
Teacher-specific motivational components
  • Affliative motive (to please the teacher)
  • Authority type (controlling vs. autonomy supporting)
  • Direct socialization of motivation
    • Modeling
    • Task presentation
    • Feedback
group specific components
Group-specific components
  • Goal-orientedness
  • Norm and reward system
  • Group cohesiveness
  • Classroom goal structure (cooperative, competitive or individualistic)
how to motivate the students
How to motivate the students?
  • Creating the basic motivational conditions
  • Generating student motivation
  • Maintaining and protecting motivation
  • Encouraging positive self-evaluation
creating the basic motivational conditions
Creating the basic motivational conditions
  • Appropriate teacher behaviors & a good relation with the students
  • A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere
  • A cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms
appropriate teacher behaviors a good relation with the students
Appropriate teacher behaviors & a good relation with the students
  • Socializing and shaping the motivation of the students
    • Personal characteristics
    • Verbal & non-verbal ‘immediacy’ behavior
    • Active motivational socializing behavior
    • Classroom management practices
a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere
A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere
  • Having ample opportunities to learn
  • Steady encouragement
  • No humiliation when they make mistakes
a cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms
A cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms
  • Developing norm system that governs group behavior
    • Having an explicit norm building procedure
    • Discussing it in the whole group
    • Having a mutually accepted set of ‘class values’
    • Specifying the consequences for violation
generating student motivation
Generating student motivation
  • Enhancing the learners’ language-related values and attitudes
  • Making the curriculum relevant for the learners
  • Creating realistic learner beliefs
enhancing the learners language related values and attitudes
Enhancing the learners’ language-related values and attitudes
  • The intrinsic value of L2 learning
    • Arouse the students’ curiosity and attention
    • Arouse the general interest in ‘foreignness’ and foreign languages
  • The extrinsic value of L2 learning
    • Reiterate the role the L2 plays in the world & its potential usefulness
making the curriculum relevant for the learners
Making the curriculum relevant for the learners
  • Find out the students’ goals and the topics they want to learn
  • Build these into the curriculum as much as possible
creating realistic learner beliefs
Creating realistic learner beliefs
  • Rectify unrealistic beliefs about how much progress to expect
  • Sort out some far-fetched expectations
  • Get rid of the preconceived notions and prejudices
maintaining and protecting motivation
Maintaining and protecting motivation
  • Setting ‘proximal subgoals’
  • Improving the quality of the learning experience
  • Increasing the learner’s self-confidence
  • Foster learner autonomy
setting proximal subgoals
Setting ‘proximal subgoals’
  • Goals clear and specific
  • Goals challenging but not far beyond their abilities
  • Providing feedback increasing students’ self-efficacy
improving the quality of the learning experience
Improving the quality of the learning experience
  • Increasing the intrinsic enjoyment of participating in learning tasks
  • Enhancing the learners’ social image
increasing the learners self confidence
Increasing the learners self-confidence
  • Foster the belief that the students’ competence is changeable and controllable
  • Emphasize what learners can do rather than cannot do
  • Give frequent verbal encouragement
  • Reduce classroom anxiety
topics to be addressed today3
Topics to be addressed today
  • The relation between motivation and strategy use
  • Motivation theories
  • Dörneyei’s process model of L2 motivation
  • Dörneyei’s motivational framework
  • Student demotivation
iv student demotivation
IV. Student demotivation
  • What is demotivation?
    • Various negative influences that cancel out existing motivation(p.142)
    • A demotivated learner
    • A demotive
key terms
Key terms
  • Motivation
  • Amotivation
  • Demotivaton
negative influences 1
Negative influences (1)
  • Dissatisfacion with grading and assignments
  • The teacher being boring, unorganized and unprepared
negative influences 2
Negative influences(2)
  • The inferior organization of the teaching material
  • The teacher being unapproachable, self-centered, biased, insulting
oxford s study 1998
Oxford’s study(1998)
  • Subjects
    • 250 American students
  • Instrument
    • Essay writing
  • Data analysis
    • Content analysis
essay topics
Essay topics
  • Learning experiences over a period of five years
  • Describe a situation in which you experienced conflict with your teacher
  • Talk about a classroom in which you felt uncomfortable
findings
Findings
  • The teacher’s personal relationship with the students
  • The teacher’s attitude towards the course or the material
  • Style conflicts between teachers and students
  • The nature of the classroom activities
teacher motivation
Teacher motivation
  • Very little research on teacher motivation
  • The teacher’s level of enthusiasm and commitment
planning an sbi lesson1
Planning an SBI Lesson
  • Course description
  • Target students
  • General objectives
  • Teaching procedures

.

implementing your lesson plan
Implementing your lesson plan
  • Don’t cover the whole cycle of strategy training (before-, during- and after-)
  • Select one cluster of strategies which are most related to your teaching content: MCA as one unit (Ideal)
  • Select one phase of your teaching (Don’t use the whole lesson for strategy training.)
strategy based activities
Strategy-based activities
  • Strategy-based instruction: A teacher-training manual
    • Awareness-raising activities
      • Get the declarative knowledge
    • Strategy training activities:
      • Practice for the purpose of changing the declarative knowledge to the procedural knowledge
    • Strategy-practice activities
      • Procedural knowledge
strategy training activities
Strategy-training activities
  • Precision
  • Scale 0-5
    • Do not see this word before.
    • I see this word before but don’t remember it’s meaning.
    • I know it’s meaning but not 100% sure.
    • I know it’s meaning.
    • I can use the word in a sentence.

0

5

strategy training activity
Strategy-training activity
  • Ask the students to measure their level of vocabulary knowledge of each of new word
  • Divide the words into three categories
    • Level 5
      • Learn to use it in speaking and writing
    • Level 4
      • Learn to use it in listening and reading
    • Level 3
      • Get familiar with them
strategy practice activity
Strategy-practice activity
  • Ask the students to accomplish such a task to make sure that the students do it frequently
    • Put the new words into three categories
tomorrow arrangement
Tomorrow arrangement
  • 8:00-9:00 Lecture
  • Six classes will work in different classrooms
    • Class one: Multi-media hall
    • Class two-six in small class rooms
    • The tutor will show you where is the classroom after today’s class.
morning
Morning
  • 8:00-9:00 Strategy training models (lecture)
  • 9:20-11:30 Group teaching in a small class (4 members) and vote for the best one to represent each class
    • 10 minutes for each group
    • Team teaching
    • The other members play the role of student
tomorrow arrangement1
Tomorrow arrangement
  • Afternoon
  • 2:00-5:00
    • Six SBI lessons (20 minutes each lesson)
      • Teachers and students
    • Which class is going to teach first?
    • Tutors form a judge panel to decide first-prize winners, second-prize winners and third-prize winners
texts for teaching
Texts for teaching
  • Class One and Class Two
    • “Say Yes”
  • Class Three and Class Four
    • “Half a day”
  • Class Five and Six
    • “The battle again Aid”
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