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The Agricultural/Industrial Revolution. Causes: 1. Expanding Atlantic economy and British Empire. 2. Natural conditions favorable. Coal. Iron. Waterways. 3. Agricultural Revolution, 1700-1800. Jethro Tull , 1674-1741 First Modern Farmer Invented seed drill. Seed Drill.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The

Agricultural/Industrial

Revolution

slide4

3. Agricultural Revolution, 1700-1800

  • JethroTull, 1674-1741
    • First Modern Farmer
    • Invented seed drill
slide6

Agricultural Rev. (contd.)

  • Enclosures
  • Crop rotation system
  • Improvement became the goal
slide7

Agricultural Rev. (contd.)

  • Led to:
  • More efficient food production
  • Cheaper food
  • More disposable income
  • Less workers needed in rural areas
slide8

4. Political conditions

  • Constitutional Monarchy
  • Relative Stability
  • Economic growth
slide9

5. Legal conditions

  • No internal tariffs
  • Patent law encouraged invention
slide10

6. Financial Conditions

  • Effective central bank (1694)
  • well-develop credit markets
  • Stock market
  • Plenty of capital
    • Money, Materials, Workers, ect.
slide11

7. Proto-industry

  • Putting-out system or cottage industry
  • Division of labor
slide12

8. Major technological advances

  • Cotton is king!
  • 1760s - James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny
  • 1760s - Richard Arkwright invented Water Frame
  • 1779 - Samuel Crompton invented the Spinning Mule
slide13

8. Major technological advances (contd.)

  • One roof
  • 1770s: Arkwright also developed the Factory System:
  • Central source of power
  • Division of Labor
slide14

8. Major technological advances

(contd.)

  • Steam Power:
  • 1698: Thomas Savery invented a steam engine
  • 1712: Thomas Newcomen invented a steam engine
slide15

8. Major technological advances

(contd.)

  • Steam Power:
  • 1765: James Watt greatly improved Newcomen engine
  • 1820s: Railroads: George Stephenson’s Rocket
industrial revolution1
Industrial Revolution
  • What?
    • Major change in the economy caused by the shift to industry with labor-saving machines.
  • When?
    • Really got going in Europe in the mid to late 1700’s.
    • Really got going in America after the Civil War.(1860’s +)
why eight reasons
WHY?Eight Reasons

Really took off after the Civil War in U.S.

Ex. In 1840 US had 3,000 miles of track and by 1860 30,000

Started many business practices that made the Industrial Revolution possible

Rail Roads

why eight reasons1
WHY?Eight Reasons

New Lands

Nations built Rail Roads in colonies to extract resources.

Federal Govt. gives western land free to Rail Raods to encourage business and Settlement.

Rail Roads took farmers out to their land, carried their crops to market , and brought them manufactured goods.

why eight reasons2
WHY?Eight Reasons

Immigration

Rail Road companies adverstise in Europe to attract immigrants to lands

Most immigrants settle in cities, joining the urban industrial workforce

why eight reasons3
WHY?Eight Reasons

Urbanization

Rail Roads made cities possible providing them with the food they needed, raw materials, and new markets

For the 1st time, more people have non-farming than farming jobs

thinking slide
Thinking Slide
  • Which cause do think is most important so far?
    • Explain
why eight reasons4
WHY?Eight Reasons

Innovations

Steel rails – safer and cheaper

More examples:

Cash register

typewriter

Refrigerator car

Telephone

Light bulb

Phonograph

why eight reasons5
WHY?Eight Reasons

New Business Practices

“Pool” – agreement to divide the business in a given area and share the profits

Where there is $ there is corruption and Railroads introduced much of both

why eight reasons6
WHY?Eight Reasons

Social Darwinism

“Survival of the Fittest”

The rich have more money because they have better businesses

why eight reasons7
WHY?Eight Reasons

Govt. Laissez-Faire

Laissez-Faire “Hands Off”

Government did not interfere with the economy and businesses

thinking slide1
Thinking Slide:
  • Do you think we could use more “Laissez Faire” economic policies today?
    • Explain