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CLOA. MEMORY. Background…. Behaviourism Pavlov : Classical Conditioning of dogs Watson & Raynor Little Albert Took Pavlov’s research to the next level to see if emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in people.

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  • Behaviourism

    • Pavlov : Classical Conditioning of dogs

    • Watson & Raynor

      • Little Albert

      • Took Pavlov’s research to the next level to see if emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in people.

      • Around the age of nine months, Watson and Raynorexposed the child to a series of stimuli including a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, masks and burning newspapers and observed the boy's reactions. The boy initially showed no fear of any of the objects he was shown.

Little albert
Little Albert

The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer.

Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise. Albert was able to connect the white rat with the loud noise. As a result, Albert began to cry after seeing the rat.

Watson and Raynorwrote: "The instant the rat was shown, the baby began to cry. Almost instantly he turned sharply to the left, fell over on his left side, and began to crawl away quickly.

Little albert1
Little Albert

Neutral Stimulus: The white rat

Unconditioned Stimulus: The loud noise

Unconditioned Response: Fear

Conditioned Stimulus: The white rat

Conditioned Response: Fear

No more santa claus
No more SANTA CLAUS!?!?

  • Stimulus Generalization

    • After conditioning, Albert feared not just the white rat, but a wide variety of similar white objects as well.

    • His fear included other furry objects (animals, toys, Furries, etc) including Raynor's fur coat and Watson wearing a Santa Claus beard.

Not a disney ending
Not a Disney Ending…

Little Albert (Douglas) died at the age of six on May 10, 1925 of hydrocephalus, a build-up of fluid in his brain.

It was later discovered in 2012, that Douglas Merritte was not the "healthy" and "normal" child that Watson described in his 1920 experiment. Instead, they found that Douglas suffered this disease since birth.

It is believed that Watson was well aware of the child’s condition, but went on with the experiment anyway.

Principles of cloa
Principles of CLOA:

  • 1. Mental Processes Guide Behaviour

    • Ex. Schemas are based on experiences, which help to organize our knowledge.

    • Reconstructive nature of memory

    • Perception  we never objectively experience, instead our brain interprets.

    • Top-down and Bottom-up processing (Gestalt)

    • Bottom-Up: The process by which the brain forms perceptions by piecing together bits and pieces of sensory data to form meaningful patterns

    • Top-Down: The process by which the brain forms perceptions by recognizing whole patterns without first piecing together their component parts.

2 the mind can be studied scientifically
2. The mind can be studied scientifically

  • Theories/scientific research methods

  • Revisions of theories

  • Experiments, Case Studies, Field Experiments, etc.

  • When looking at Cognitive Research, consider what type of research is being done, strengths/weaknesses of that research and possible ethical concerns.

  • Traditionally have favored lab experiments (but artificial)…now there is a wider variety of techniques available due to advancements in technology.

3 cognitive processes are influenced by social cultural factors
3. Cognitive Processes are Influenced by Social & Cultural Factors

Schemas by culture (Bartlett)

Memory is subject to distortions as we remember in terms of meaning and what makes sense to us.

Episodic memory
Episodic Memory Factors

Long-term memory for specific events and experiences.

Ex. Remembering what you had for dinner last Thursday night

Interference Factors

Interruption or disruption of remembering or recalling a fact or event when something similar occurs before or after.

2 Types: Retroactive & Proactive

If you took French in high school but are taking Spanish now, RETROACTIVE interference might make it difficult for you to remember French words and phrases instead of Spanish.

If you have moved your clothes or kitchen utensils to new drawers, PROACTIVE interference may cause you to keep going to the ‘old’ places to look for things.

Shine bright like a diamond
Shine bright like a diamond… Factors

  • FLASHBULB MEMORIES (Bernsten & Thomsen, 2005)

    • “distinctly vivid, precise, concrete, long-lasting memories of a personal circumstance surrounding a person., or the discovery of shocking events.”

    • People remember with almost perceptual clarity details of the context in which they first heard about the news, such as what they were doing, with whom they were with and where they were.

    • Where were you on 9/11? What were you doing? Who were you with?

    • What other Flashbulb Memories do you have?

ERQ… Factors

The command term discuss asks you to present a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses.

Opinions and/or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

You could consider cultural schemas (Konner, 2007) – Highlands of New Guinea.

Loftus & Palmer (Bartlett redone, but this time the participants were told they needed to remember the facts)

Anderson & Pitchert (1978)- Schema may assist or inhibit recall and may affect how memories are encoded (home buyer and burglar).

Bartlett and Piaget

Could look at gender schemas (Bashing Bobo)

Cross culture studies on memory
Cross-Culture Studies on Memory Factors

Cole & Scribner (1974) – Liberia


1. How does culture affect memory?

2. What has been the problem in cross-cultural memory research, and what have the implications been?

3. Give some arguments for why it is not advisable to assume that memory strategies are universal and support it with evidence.

4. If you were to test memory in another culture, how would you proceed?

5. What can be learned from these studies on memory on general problems in psychological research?

Freaky thursday this is for you leilani
Freaky Thursday…This is for you FactorsLeilani!

Ted talk
TED Talk Factors

Joshua Foer (2012)