CLOA. MEMORY. Background…. Behaviourism Pavlov : Classical Conditioning of dogs Watson & Raynor Little Albert Took Pavlov’s research to the next level to see if emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in people.
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The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer.
Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise. Albert was able to connect the white rat with the loud noise. As a result, Albert began to cry after seeing the rat.
Watson and Raynorwrote: "The instant the rat was shown, the baby began to cry. Almost instantly he turned sharply to the left, fell over on his left side, and began to crawl away quickly.
Neutral Stimulus: The white rat
Unconditioned Stimulus: The loud noise
Unconditioned Response: Fear
Conditioned Stimulus: The white rat
Conditioned Response: Fear
Little Albert (Douglas) died at the age of six on May 10, 1925 of hydrocephalus, a build-up of fluid in his brain.
It was later discovered in 2012, that Douglas Merritte was not the "healthy" and "normal" child that Watson described in his 1920 experiment. Instead, they found that Douglas suffered this disease since birth.
It is believed that Watson was well aware of the child’s condition, but went on with the experiment anyway.
Schemas by culture (Bartlett)
Memory is subject to distortions as we remember in terms of meaning and what makes sense to us.
Long-term memory for specific events and experiences.
Ex. Remembering what you had for dinner last Thursday night
Interruption or disruption of remembering or recalling a fact or event when something similar occurs before or after.
2 Types: Retroactive & Proactive
If you took French in high school but are taking Spanish now, RETROACTIVE interference might make it difficult for you to remember French words and phrases instead of Spanish.
If you have moved your clothes or kitchen utensils to new drawers, PROACTIVE interference may cause you to keep going to the ‘old’ places to look for things.
The command term discuss asks you to present a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses.
Opinions and/or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.
You could consider cultural schemas (Konner, 2007) – Highlands of New Guinea.
Loftus & Palmer (Bartlett redone, but this time the participants were told they needed to remember the facts)
Anderson & Pitchert (1978)- Schema may assist or inhibit recall and may affect how memories are encoded (home buyer and burglar).
Bartlett and Piaget
Could look at gender schemas (Bashing Bobo)
Cole & Scribner (1974) – Liberia
1. How does culture affect memory?
2. What has been the problem in cross-cultural memory research, and what have the implications been?
3. Give some arguments for why it is not advisable to assume that memory strategies are universal and support it with evidence.
4. If you were to test memory in another culture, how would you proceed?
5. What can be learned from these studies on memory on general problems in psychological research?
Joshua Foer (2012)