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Nomenclature. Unit: Nomenclature. Topic: Type I and type II Binary Compounds. Objectives: Day 1 of 3 I will understand the difference between a Type 1 and type 2 ionic compound I will understand how we name type one and two Ionic Compounds. Quickwrite.

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topic type i and type ii binary compounds

Unit: Nomenclature

Topic: Type I and type II Binary Compounds

Objectives: Day 1 of 3

  • I will understand the difference between a Type 1 and type 2 ionic compound
  • I will understand how we name type one and two Ionic Compounds
quickwrite
Quickwrite

Answer one of the questions below 1-2 sentences:

  • Nomenclature is the method by which we name and organize compounds and molecules; given this, why do you think it is important to have a “naming” system for chemicals?
  • Consider the compound NaCl, what comes first, the cation or the anion???
nomenclature1
Nomenclature
  • In chemistry, we have system of naming chemical compounds
  • The name implies something about he composition of the compound
  • After learning the system, you should be able to name a compound when you are given it’s formula
ionic compounds with a metal nonmetal
Ionic Compounds with a Metal & Nonmetal
  • When a metal (such as sodium) combines with a nonmetal such as (chlorine), the resulting compound (NaCl) is Ionic in Nature
  • If you remember, the metal (sodium) loses one electron and the Nonmetal (chlorine) gains an electron
  • The result is an Ionic Compound
  • An Ionic Compound contains a cation (positive ion) and anion (negative ion)
slide6

Balancing Ionic Compounds

Chlorine (Cl) is

A 1- Anion

Sodium (Na) is

a 1+ Cation

Cl-

Na+

(Charge 1+) (Charge 1-) Net Charge: 0

rules for naming ionic compounds
Rules for naming Ionic Compounds
  • The cation is always named
  • first and the anion second

2.The cation takes it name from

the name of the element

For example, Na+ is called sodium

And Mg 2+ is called magnesium

3.The anion takes it’s name by

Taking the first part of the

Element name and adding

-ide to the end

For Example: The Cl- ion

is called Chloride & the

O2- ion is called oxide

what is a ionic compound
What is a Ionic Compound?
  • A compound that contains a _____(positive ion) and an_____(negative ion)
  • They form between a _____ and a non-metal Ex: KBr & Fe2O3

cation

Answer Bank

Anion

Different

Two

Cation

Changes

metals

anion

metal

ionic compounds type 1 2
Ionic Compounds: Type 1 & 2
  • There are two types of binary Ionic compounds
  • Type 1 and type 2
  • In Type 1 ionic compounds, the metal cation charge never changes
  • For example, sodium always has a Na1+ charge
  • Type 2 ionic compounds contain a metal cation that can have different charges
  • For example, Iron can have more than one charge: Fe2+ & Fe3+

Na+

Fe2+

Fe3+

ionic compounds type 1 21
Ionic Compounds: Type 1 & 2
  • Type 1 ionic compounds are always the have the same charge such as Na+ or Mg 2+
  • Type 2 Ionic Compounds contain Cations that have various charges of Fe2+ & Fe3+ or Pb2+ & Pb4+

Mg2+

Na+

Fe2+

Pb2+

Fe3+

Pb4+

slide11

Type 1 Ionic Compounds

Chloride

Sodium

always has 1+ charge

Cl-

Na+

Sodium Chloride

slide12

Type 1 Ionic Compounds

Iodide

Potassium

I-

K+

Potassium Iodide

slide13

Type 1 Ionic Compounds

Oxide

Magnesium

always has a 2+ charge

O2-

Mg2+

Mg2+

Potassium Iodide

Magnesium Oxide

ionic compounds type 2
Ionic Compounds: Type 2
  • Other metals, such as Lead Pb2+ & Pb4+ also can have more than one charge
  • This means that if we saw the name lead chloride, we wouldn’t know whether it referred to PbCl2 or PbCl4
  • Therefore, we need a way to specifying which cation is present
  • Is it Pb2+ & Pb4+ ?

Pb2+

Pb4+

type 2 ionic compounds transition metals
Type 2 Ionic CompoundsTransition Metals
  • Transition metals can take on many different charges (+, 2+, 3+, or 4+), therefore they form type 2 Ionic Compounds
type 2 ionic compounds transition metals1
Type 2 Ionic CompoundsTransition Metals
  • Copper (Cu) is transition metal, it likes to be either Cu+ or Cu2+, therefore it forms a type 2 binary ionic compound

Cu2+

Cu+

type 2 ionic compounds transition metals2
Type 2 Ionic CompoundsTransition Metals
  • Iron (Fe) is transition metal, it likes to be either Fe2+ or Fe3+,therefore it forms a type 2 binary ionic compound

Fe3+

Fe2+

type 1 type 2 ionic compounds what s the difference
Type 1 & Type 2 Ionic CompoundsWhat’s the difference?

Type 2 ionic compounds form between

Transition metals (Fe3+ , Cu+, Pb4+)

These cations can have various charges

Type 1 ionic compounds form between

group 1 and 2 cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+)

These cations never vary in charge

what s are the 2 types of ionic compounds
What’s are the 2 types of ionic compounds?
  • Type 1 = Cation charge never______

Ex. Na1+ & Mg +2

  • Type 2 = Cation can have ________charges therefore we use roman numerals to indicate charge

Ex. Fe2+, Fe3+

changes

Answer Bank

Anion

Different

Two

Cation

Changes

metals

different

ionic compounds type 21
Ionic Compounds: Type 2
  • To deal with the complexity of multiple charge, chemists use roman numerals to specify the charge on the cation
  • Consider the binary ionic compound FeCl2
  • Is it Fe2+ or Fe3+?
  • We know chlorine has a (1-) charge
  • To balance the charge of 2(-1) chlorine atoms we need a charge Positive two (2+)

?

Fe2+

= 0

Cl-

Cl-

ionic compounds type 22
Ionic Compounds: Type 2
  • So how would we write FeCl2?
  • We call this iron (II) chloride
  • Lets take another look at rust: Fe2O3
  • Who knows the charge on the iron cation?
  • Let’s do the math!
  • (?) + 3(2-) = 0
  • 2(?) + 3(2-) = 0
  • 2(3+) + -6 = 0
  • So the charge, is Fe3+, written as Iron (III) oxide!
slide22

Practice: Write the formula for the following type 1 and 2 ionic compounds:

Type 1:

3. Copper (I) chloride

4. Copper (II) chloride

5. Lead (IV) Sulfide

1. Potassium Oxide

2. Calcium Chloride

-K2O

-CaCl2

Type 2:

- CuCl

-CuCl2

-PbS2

what are the names of the following type 1 and 2 ionic compounds
What are the names of the following type 1 and 2 ionic compounds?

1. CaCl2

2. MgI2

- Calcium Chloride

- Magnesium Iodide

Type 1:

Type 2:

- Copper (I) Chloride

- Iron (II) Oxide

-Lead (IV) Chloride

3. CuCl

4. FeO

5. PbCl4

summarize
Summarize:
  • When naming Ionic compounds, the cation is named _____ and the ______ second
  • When naming Ionic compounds, the anion ends in ____.
  • What do the Roman Numerals indicate in an ionic compound???
  • Write the name for MgF2
  • Write the name for PbO2
topic covalent compounds

Unit: Nomenclature

Topic: Covalent Compounds

Objectives: Day 2 of 3

  • To learn the naming rules for Covalent compounds
  • To learn that covalent compounds form between 2 nonmetals
  • To understand what polyatomic ions are and how they form compounds
quickwrite1
Quickwrite

Answer one of the questions below 1-2 sentences:

  • Consider the Compound CO2, how is this compound different from NaCl???
  • Once again consider the compound CO2, how do you think we should go about naming this compound??? Carbon is not a metal!!!!
  • Why do you think we use prefixes such as tri- on words like triceratops, tricycle or tripod????
compounds that contain only nonmetals
Compounds that Contain only Nonmetals
  • If you remember, Binary compounds are divided into 2 types:
    • Compounds that contain a metal and nonmetal (ionic)
    • Compounds that contain 2 nonmetals (covalent)
    • The compound below, carbon monoxide is made of carbon and oxygen—2 nonmetals

Carbon Monoxide

slide28

Carbon Monoxide

Made of 2 nonmetals: carbon & oxygen

Covalent Compounds

Nonmetals

  • CovalentCompounds contain only nonmetals
rules for naming covalent compounds
Rules for Naming Covalent Compounds

2. The 2nd element is named

as though it were an anion

For example- the oxygen in CO is oxide

3. Prefixes are used to denote

the numbers of atoms-

mono- 1, di- 2, & tri- 3

  • The first element in the formula is named
  • first, and the full element name is used
  • For example: we just say carbon
  • for carbon monoxide

4. The prefix mono- is never used for

naming the first element

For Example: CO is called carbon monoxide

Not monocarbon monoxide

Carbon Monoxide

prefixes
Prefixes

PrefixExample

covalent compounds
Covalent Compounds
  • Using the rules, let’s look at CO2:
  • Name the first element using the full element name: Carbon
  • Name the second element as though it were an anion: -oxide
  • Use prefixes to denote the number of atoms: one carbon, do use mono- for the first element carbon, 2 oxygen atoms: use the prefix di-
  • Carbon Dioxide!
slide32

Naming Covalent Compounds

  • Let’s look at – SO3:
  • Name the first element: Sulfur
  • Name the second element as anion: Oxide
  • Use Prefix: Tri-
  • Do not use mono- for the first element!
  • Sulfur Trioxide
slide33

Covalent Compounds

  • Let’s look at one more –N2O5:
  • Name the first element: Nitrogen
  • Name the second element as anion: Oxide
  • Use Prefixes: Di-(for nitrogen) & Penta-(for oxygen)
  • Remember: there are 2 nitrogen atoms!
  • So the last rule does not apply and we get: dinitrogen pentaoxide
what are covalent compounds and how do we name them
What are covalent compounds and how do we name them?
  • Neutral compounds that form between 2 _________
  • Prefixes are used below:
  • 1-mono-, 2-di-, 3-tri-, 4-tetra-, 5-_____, 6-hexa-
  • Ex: CO2 ,SO3, _____

Nonmetals

Answer Bank

polyatomic

More

Two

N2O5

Penta-

Nonmetals

charge

Penta-

N2O5

slide35

Practice: #1-3 on your whiteboards and write the NAMES for the following covalent compounds:

  • PCl5 =_____________________
  • P4O6 =_________________________
  • N2O3 =_____________________

Phosphorous Pentachloride

Tetraphosphorous Hexaoxide

Dinitrogen Trioxide

practice 1 3 on your whiteboards and write the formulas for the following covalent compounds
Practice: #1-3 on your whiteboards and write the formulas for the following covalent compounds:

NO2

  • Nitrogen dioxide = ____________
  • Diphosphorus Pentachloride = _________
  • Dinitrogen Pentoxide= ____________

P2Cl5

N2O5

polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • Polyatomic Ions are a group of two or more atoms that have a particular charge to them
  • An example would include the ammonium ion NH4+
  • It is composed of 1 nitrogen atom and 4 hydrogen atoms which give it a 1+ charge
  • These ions are assigned special names that you must memorize!

[ ]+

common polyatomic ions
Common Polyatomic Ions
  • You must memorize!
what are polyatomic ions

[ ]+

What are Polyatomic Ions?

more

  • A group of two or ____ atoms that have a particular ______to them
  • Ex: CO32-, NH4+ & OH-

Answer Bank

polyatomic

More

Two

N2O5

Penta-

Nonmetals

charge

charge

slide40

Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

  • Let us look at the compound ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (a very explosive chemical)
  • Ammonium Nitrate is made up of 2 polyatomic ions NH4+ & NO3-
  • When two polyatomic ions come together, a compound (NH4NO3) forms between them
ionic compounds with polyatomic ions
Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
  • Naming ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions is very similar to naming ionic compounds
  • For example, the compound NaOH is called sodium hydroxide
  • The cation, Sodium (Na) comes first and the anion (OH-) comes second
naming compounds with polyatomic ions
Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
  • Let’s look at one more example: AgNO3
  • The Ag+ cation comes first, and the negative polyatomic (NO3-) anion comes second
  • Just like in ioniccompounds, the charges need to be neutral
  • Ag+ needs be balanced by the negatively charged polyatomic ion NO3-
  • Therefore we write: Silver (I) Nitrate
naming compounds with polyatomic ions1
Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
  • There are no rules for polyatomic ions, you must memorize them!
  • That means you need to memorize the charge, and the composition for them
  • You will be quizzed on them!!!!
what are ionic compounds with polyatomic ions
What are Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions?

polyatomic

  • Compounds that contain a _________ ion
  • Ex: NaOH & CaCO3

Answer Bank

polyatomic

More

Two

N2O5

Penta-

Nonmetals

charge

practice 1 3 on your whiteboards and write the formulas for the following compounds
Practice: #1-3 on your whiteboards and write the formulas for the following compounds:

K3PO4

  • Potassium Phosphate = ___________
  • Copper (II) sulfate = __________
  • Calcium Carbonate =__________

CuSO4

CaCO3

slide46

Practice: #1-3 on your whiteboards and write the NAMES for the following compounds:

  • NaOH =____________________
  • MgCO3 =_________________________
  • Fe(NO3)3 = ____________________

Sodium Hydroxide

Magnesium Carbonate

Iron (III) Nitrate

summarize1
Summarize:
  • Covalent compounds form between 2 ______
  • In covalent compounds, _______ are used to show the number of atoms
  • Polyatomic ion is a group of two or ____ atoms that have a particular _____to them.
  • Review: Ionic compounds form between a metal and a __________
  • Write the polyatomic compound that forms between the silver Ag+ cation and needs be negatively charged polyatomic ion NO3-
topic naming acids

Unit: Nomenclature

Topic: Naming Acids

Objectives: Day 3 of 3

  • I will know how to define an acid
  • I will know how we add name acids and
quickwrite2
Quickwrite

Answer one of the questions below 1-2 sentences:

  • What do you know about acids???
  • Why do you think lemons are so sour???
  • What do you think acids react so easily with other substances????
acids
Acids
  • Certain compounds when dissolved in water produce and donate hydrogen ions (H+) to other chemicals
  • Hydrogen Ions are very reactive and readily bond with other substances
  • These compounds are called acids andwere first recognized by their sour taste of their solution
  • For example, citric acid is responsible for the sour taste of lemons and limes
  • Acids have a pH less than 7
what are acids
What are Acids?
  • Compounds when dissolved in water produce and donate ________ ions (H+)
  • Acids taste sour and have a pH less than ___

Answer Bank

contains

7

-ate

Hydrogen

-ic

Oxygen

hydrogen

7

naming acids
Naming Acids
  • Just like, Ionic Compounds and Covalent compounds, Acids have rules for how we name them
  • Acid compounds will always contain Hydrogen
  • Remember, the charge on a Hydorgen Ion is +1, or H+1
  • Hydrogen bonds with negatively charged ions (anions) and polyatomic anions
  • For example, HCl forms between hydrogen and Chlorine

Cl-

H+

(Charge 1+) + (Charge 1-) = Net Charge: 0

naming acids1
Naming Acids
  • Remember, Hydrogen bonds with polyatomic anions as well
  • Most of these polyatomic Ions contain Oxygen
  • For example, H+ bonds with the Sulfate polyatomic anion SO42- and forms sulfuric acid: H2SO4

H+

SO42-

H+

2(Charge 1+) + (Charge 1-) = Net Charge: 0

rules for naming acids
Rules for Naming Acids

1. If the anion does not contain oxygen,

the acid is named with prefix hydro-

and the suffix –ic. For example,

consider HCl. Does it have oxygen?

No, so we say hydrochloric acid

2.When an anion contains oxygen, the acid

name is formed from the root name of the

central element of the anion or the anion

name, with a suffix of -ic or -ous.

When the anion name ends in -ite,

the suffix -ous is used. For example:

When the anion name ends in -ate,

the suffix -ate is used. For example:

how do we name acids
How do we name acids?

oxygen

  • If the anion does not contain _______add the prefix hydro- and suffix -____

Ex: HCl becomes hydrochloric acid

HF becomes hydroflouric acid

  • If the anion ________ oxygen, change the ____ to -ic and

-ite to -ous

Example:

Answer Bank

contains

7

-ate

Hydrogen

-ic

Oxygen

-ic

contains

-ate

slide56

Practice: #1-3 on your whiteboards and write the NAMES for the following Acid:

Write the name of the following acids:

  • H2SO3 =_______________
  • H2SO4 =_______________
  • HCl=__________________
  • HBr =__________________

Sulfurous Acid

Sulfuric Acid

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrobromic Acid

slide57

Practice: #1-4 on your whiteboards and write the Formulas for the following ACIDS:

  • Hydrofluoric Acid=_____________
  • Carbonic Acid=_____________
  • Hydrobromic Acid=_____________
  • Phosphorous Acid=_____________

HF

H2CO3

HBr

H3PO3

summarize2
Summarize:
  • If the anion does not contain ______ then we add the prefix _____ and suffix _____.
  • If the anion contains_____, change ____ to___ and ____ to ____.

Review: Complete the table