Concepts of Records and Files. Topics Covered: File Components of file Terms used Types of business file Operations on file. File
Components of file
Types of business file
Operations on file
Field Field Field Field
Master file: It is a file which stores the information which is most important for organization. Master file is most important file of any organization. It is of two types
Transaction file:It is one which is of temporary nature. Transaction files are created depending upon organization’s activity cycle. e.g. daybook is created daily but payroll is created after each month. Main aim of transaction file is to modify master file. Moreover it can be used for storing result. Transaction files can be classified as input transaction file, output transaction file, work file.
Backup file:It is used to maintain duplicate copy of any data. Backup file is used to store data which can be used in case of accidental loss of data from the main file. This file is maintained for security purpose. But maintaining data increases the cost.
Library file: Files which are used only for reference are called library files. e.g. previous year’s ledger in business activity is example of library file.
Creation of file:Creation activity deals with collection and validation of data. Two approaches can be used. In first approach, the space is created and then vales are inserted in the free space. In the second approach space is created as the values are given.
Modification/updation of file:Updation involve three main activities:
Modification in existing record: It is a process to change the existing contents of file. It can be performed by using a single file. In this case file to be modified works as input file as well as output file. Records are read, modified and rewritten in the same file.
Retrieval of information: This process is related to obtaining output from any file. Retrieval can be performed in the form of enquiry or report.
Enquiry: When output is obtained with limited number of records then retrieval is called enquiry.
Report generation: In this bulk of information is obtained &output contains large no. of records. Reports are generally obtained in batch mode. Report generation can be performed on either all the records or on records that satisfies the given condition.
Restructuring: This process includes insertion of some new field or deleting some existing file or changing the characteristics of any field.
Reorganization: This process deals with changing organization of the file. A file can be converted from sequential to random or vice versa. Reorganization process is performed to improved efficiency of the processing. In some cases it is automatically performed by the system, in some cases by the user.