How important was National Securityas a reason for the passing of the Liberal Reforms 1906-14? Boer General
introduction This should have been completed!
Paragraph 1 This should have been completed!
Paragraph 1 national security • Point: Liberals became concerned over national security when they realised that the majority of British citizens were unhealthy and would not be able to protect the country or empire if attacked. • *this was an important factor in encouraging the Liberals to pass reforms.
Paragraph 1 national security • Evidence: Boer War 1899 – 1902, 25% of volunteers rejected due to health problems. • Analysis: Government worried about national security of Britain.
Paragraph 1 national security • Evidence: Inter Departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration reported in 1904 that health of many males was poor and recommended improved diet and reduction of overcrowding. • Analysis: Findings of this report encouraged the Liberals to pass reforms of School Meals 1906 & Medical Inspections 1907 – children would be healthy soldiers of the future.
Paragraph 1 national security • Historiography: • Sub Conclusion: Concern over national security was a very important reason for the passing of the Liberal reforms as…
Paragraph 2booth & rowntree This should have been completed for HOMEWORK!
Paragraph 2 The Reports ofBooth and Rowntree • Point: Reports influenced the Liberals to pass reforms after they uncovered the true extent of poverty and shocked the country, however reforms passed specifically due to a concern for British citizens were not passed until later.
Paragraph 2 The Reports ofBooth and Rowntree • Evidence: Booth and Rowntree highlighted one third of British citizens in London & York lived in extreme poverty. This could not be solved without government intervention. • Analysis: The Liberals realised that poverty was nationwide and that it could not ignore these reports which had caused considerable shock when released.
Paragraph 2 The Reports ofBooth and Rowntree • Evidence: Rowntree found that poverty was not caused by moral failings but other factors such as old age, sickness etc. • Analysis: The Liberals realised that only government intervention would overcome poverty and the first act which was passed due to social concern was the Old Age Pensions Act 1908. On the other hand as reforms solely for social concern were not passed at the beginning of the term the reports of Booth and Rowntree cannot be deemed the most important reason.
Paragraph 2 The Reports ofBooth and Rowntree • Historiography: • Sub Conclusion: The reports of Booth and Rowntree were an influential factor in the Liberals passing reforms, however, this factor cannot be deemed as important as National Security as reforms for social concern were only passed two years into their term of power.
Paragraph 3political advantage This should have been completed for HOMEWORK!
Paragraph 3 Political Advantage • Point: Political advantage has been argued by historians to be a significant factor in the passing of the Liberal reforms, however since no mention of the reforms was present in the party’s manifesto it cannot be said to be the most important reason.
Paragraph 3 Political Advantage • Evidence: The 1867 Second Reform Act gave many working class men the vote while the growth of socialism and the Labour movement attracted many men as they advocated social reform. • Analysis: Historians have argued that the rise of the Labour Party and socialism forced the Liberals to compete with them for the votes of working class men by passing reforms. However, the liberal manifesto at no time referred to a programme of social reforms prior to the 1906 election, this means that the reforms passed were not pre-planned.
Paragraph 3 Political Advantage • Historiography: • Sub Conclusion: Therefore, political advantage can be argued not to be a strong reason for the passing of the Liberal reforms as….
Paragraph 4 New Liberalism • Point: The emergence of ‘New liberals’ has been argued to be a factor which influenced the Liberal government to pass reforms, however the influence of these New Liberals did not take effect until later in the term.
Paragraph 4 New Liberalism • Evidence: After Bannerman’s death in 1908, Asquith the new PM appointed Lloyd George/Churchill to the cabinet. New Liberals argued that the state needed to help its citizens from social problems which they had no control over. • Analysis: After 1908 the Liberals passed many reforms in a short space of time, this proved the New Liberals did have a significant influence on the passing of reforms. However it cannot be argued that the New Liberals influenced the early reforms as these were passed by an old Liberal who did not share their ideology.
Paragraph 4 New Liberalism • Historiography: • Sub Conclusion: Therefore, although New Liberalism can be seen to have had a significant role in the passing of the reforms, it was only the later reforms which can be attributed to them. Thus concerns over national security were more important.
Paragraph 5 National Efficiency • Point: National efficiency was a major concern which influenced the government to pass reforms due to a fear of losing Britain’s top industrial position. • *this was an important factor in encouraging the Liberals to pass reforms.
Paragraph 5 National Efficiency • Evidence: Britain in 19th had been the top industrial nation but due to competition from America, Japan and Germany, its position and wealth was in decline. The latter countries technology was more modern and efficient allowing them to provide cheaper goods giving them the competitive edge over Britain. • Analysis: This was a very important reason for the passing of the reforms as both it and national security can be argued as being responsible for the two earliest reforms, meals and medical inspections. The Liberals realised that if the health of workers deteriorated still then Britain would lose its position in the world and its wealth would be threatened.
Paragraph 5 National Efficiency • Historiography: • Sub Conclusion: Concerns over national efficiency were an important reason in the passing of reforms as was national efficiency as the government realised that to maintain Britain’s position and wealth in the world it must have a healthy workforce. Both concerns witnessed the passing of reforms to help create the future soldiers and workforce.
The conclusion • In conclusion, refer to the isolated factor and answer the question– was it (National Security) important? • What could you argue didn’t have such an impact on the passing of the reforms, why was this? • What really prompted the reforms and why? • Overall conclusion sentence.