Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli 1513
Leadership • ‘romance’ of leadership debated in organisational theory • 'Any evidence for a systematic relationship between leadership styles & organisational performance?’ • Subtexts (p87) • A means of generating ‘stories’ about how kinds of power & influence can be exerted • role of leadership in organisations related to • control over meanings & interpretations of important groups • its effectiveness is as a political tool • Meindl et al 1985, cited in Jaffee, 2001
A source of ‘political control and influence’ • An more negative argument within organisational sociological tradition • how leadership can influence how a situation is defined • challenges managerial psychology views i.e leadership as an element of group and organisational functioning ( ‘managerialist legitimation’?)
Leadership: Conceptual and practical dilemmas • best understood in ‘high profile’, public figure sense • we don’t like the bad ones (Hitler, Maxwell) • often associated with male attributes, which may limit its definitions and thus what happens in reality • may create problems for women put into leadership roles • we feel its absence (leaderless, directionless)
Psychological view of ‘what is a leader’ - Kelly, 1991 • We may nominate leaders’ differently, depending upon understanding of what the situation demands (originality; defence of group; devotion to duty, etc.) and the role we expect to be played • Leader • one who performs a variety of jobs popularly recognised as "leadership" jobs (socially constructed) • needs to understand his/her role in group social processes • Dynamic, socio-psychological interplay between followers & leadership
Authority and Leadership • Max Webereffective exercise of authority requires the authority figure to possess legitimacy, thru. charisma, reputation, lineage or exceptional credentials. • Katz & Kahn (1966)occupying a formal position of authority is not enough – must possess qualities to motivate & energise others. • Henry Mintzberg (1973) All managers adopt a leader role as one of their roles - to integrate individual goals/needs & organisational goals/needs.
Four approaches to leadership • Trait theoriesBrynman 1996 reviewed literature to elicit essential e.g. physique, height, intelligence, sociability, assertiveness - no commonality. • Leadership functions and stylesTannenbaum et al 1961, Likert 1961; Adair, 1965 e.g. task leaders vs. social leaders; participative or exploitative • Contingency or situational leadershipconcerned with relationships between traits/styles & the situation or context (Feidler 1967; Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson, 1998) • "New Leadership" ..... Transformationalcreate organisational culture that motivates & stimulates continuous learning, quality & self initiative - Burns 1975 and Bass 1985
Bennis (1989) • Managers (transactional) • administer, copy, maintain • focus on systems & structure • rely on control • short-range view - bottom line • ask how & when • accept the status quo • classic good soldier • do things right • Leaders (transformational) • innovation & originality • develop • focus on people & inspire trust • long-range view - the horizon • ask what & why • challenge the status quo • are their own person • do the right things 'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).
Maintaining or losing leadership • Followers have expectations • task competence (Fincham & Rhodes 1999) • socio-emotional competence especially re-group • Gap may exist between actual & perceived competence – influences willingness of followers to comply - Price & Garland, 1981 • Idiosyncratic credit – permission to deviate from group norms - maintaining credit is crucial to surviving in leadership position Hollander, 1958 • Common-sense + research link between mgr-leader behaviour & subordinate performance • belief that business success has much to do with 'leadership'.
Classical management functions Fayol • plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. • Generate & follow • policies, rules & procedures (admin. > mgt?) • seek order & control. • handle & direct resources: • money, materials, equip't, space, facilities, • information & technology • use of time • people • Have 'subordinates' and communicate • enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas • Telling people what to do & how to do it > vision & giving a sense of direction?
Management development & leadership • .Can leadership skills really be developed? • Drake's Drum? • "The Playing Fields of Eton" • team games e.g. rugby, hockey? • simulated field experience (outward bound)? • assessment centre (workshop selection & devel)? • coaching & mentoring • going on a leadership course? • meditation? • reading a book, watching TV?
Academic & practitioner recipes • a mix of traditional & behavioural science approaches • few studies offer much to the practical manager (Adair) • academic doubts. Textbooks tend to • report 'theories' few query the validity of each approach • the prescriptions/recommendations an industry selling • Elixirs, recipes, 'leadership development' packages: interpersonal skills, motivating, listening, participative problem solving, assertiveness & transforming skills
Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference • One set of values, beliefs, commitments • Shared understanding & commitment to objectives • One source of leadership • Team members - All pulling in the same direction • Potential for harmony is assumed if leader communicates well • Disagreements the result of misunderstanding • Dissidents & "rabble" hypothesis Alan Fox – Research Paper to Donovan Commission 1968
How do different 'styles' affect an organisation? • wide ranging & open to question • difficult to research - what are the variables? • difficult to • separate fact from fiction • attribute cause & effect in different contexts & organisational settings over time • ambiguity of measures of organisational performance • gap between perception of practitioners & behavioural scientists
Leadership traits approach • Bird 1940, Brynman 1996 identified traits from 'the literature'. Few common to all studies • everyday wisdom on common traits • many descriptors & many heroes and villains - difficult to agree on one trait list • when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much is cause, how much is effect? • do some 'qualities' indicate potential differentiating the 'effective from the ineffective'? • but non-leaders often possess the same traits as leaders Conclusion? • Consider followers & situation that L. occurs in.
Style approaches Mayo & Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939) • 'permissive', sensitive leadership behaviour more output • Relay Assembly room - increased output influenced by 'permissive' management of researchers • Bank Wiring room - links management style, employee attitudes and behaviour Kurt Lewin (1939) - adult leaders in boys' hobby club • autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leader styles & the behaviour/performance of youth groups • language & model linking "styles" subordinate performance • Democratic style reflects dominant social values • Impetus for further study - Michigan & Ohio State
Ohio State studies (two factor theories) Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948, 1956) two (independent) L - dimensions • initiating structure (task centred) • consideration (interpersonal relationships) "measure" perception & style preferences in various settings inventories & development prescriptions. Effectiveness reflects • task completion • member satisfaction Supervisors • High task - productive but high turnover, lower morale • High consideration - high morale, low productivity Over-generalised conclusions • Ideal L = high on initiation + consideration. • Participative styles preferred
Critique of Ohio Studies • output measures can often be favourably affected in the short term by authoritarian leadership. • The problems of social research • Hawthorne effect • Abstracted empiricism • likelihood that change in performance stems from more than one variable
Concern for people 5.5. Michigan Studies Managerial Grid • programmes for changing style & org. culture • 'proprietary' approaches to assessment & training (treatment) • Blake - Moulton Managerial Grid (1968) • Extended with contingency focus • Tannenbaum (1958) • Reddin (1970) • Hersey & Blanchard (1977) 1.9 9.9. the ideal one-best style High 1.1 9.1. Low Low High Concern for production
Critique of style theories • Universality of the style? • weak evidence for usefulness of 'style' theories • Style changes often assoc. with changes in org. structure + other mgt competencies . • Fiedler (1967) - Are participative, considerate styles really better than trad. authoritarian/directive? • Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of behaviour change from directive to participative
Joins Delegates Abdicates Tells Sells Suggests Consults Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Boss-centred Follower-centred use of authority by leader decision making & action freedom for followers Position on continuumbased on situational factors: value system, wants, confidence, willingness.
Task • functions • Group • maintenance • Individual • needs Adair: Action-centred leadership • Simple model – useful for junior mgt training • functional & situational emphasis on task situation + socio-emotional needs • Aware of group processes, people in group, nuances of behaviour, interpersonal skills
Critique of Group Dynamics approach • If leadership behaviour is situationally & group related what happens when the situation or group changes? • Does the organisation function sub-optimally? • ignores wider organisational demands on leader & group. Yet • we see how leaders may relate to followers & situations
Theoretically weak • no proper rationale for the hypothesised relationships • Maturity - an over-simplified factor - lacks empirical support (Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983; Blank et al, 1990). Situational L. (Hersey & Blanchard 1977 & 82) • contingency approach • follower maturity a critical situational variable • two dimensions • task style • relationship style • Four styles • telling, selling, participating, delegating. • follower maturity • degree of achievement motivation • willingness to take on responsibility • education or experience
Manager executive Developer Effectiveness • Too many labels Benevolent autocrat Bureaucrat Related Integrated Relationships Missionary Compromiser Separated Dedicated Deserter Autocrat Reddin 3-D (style-contingency approach) High High Low Low Low High Task
Problems with contingency theories? • what causes what - in real life? • like style theories, difficult to understand why a favourable view of the leader in some groups. • 'permissive' leadership: the consequence > the cause of group effectiveness • social learning - leader & subordinates/followers • have negotiable, interactive relationship • learn to modify or influence each other's behaviour by giving or holding back desired rewards
The search for the Grail ? • exercising effective-L is more & more difficult • economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc. • political change South Africa, CIS, Italy, Japan + Europe • big transnational firms • less goodwill & traditional deference towards leaders • Many skills & techniques of today's senior execs are being superseded. Which ones? • Competition & changing markets, products, technologies & expectations dictate adaptability and innovation in strategic decision making, marketing, organisation - & leadership
fresh thinking? Romanticism? • creates conditions for followers to want to achieve results & fulfil selves. • bridges small group studies & leadership by ’movers & shakers’ who transform organisations Transformational leadership theory • Context? late-20thC national & global pol-econ. change • Contributors: Downton (1973), Burns (1978), Bass (1985), Bennis & Nanus (1985), Tichy & Devanna (1986) • Bass surveyed 70 execs"In your careers, who transformed you in Burns' terms (raised awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy …. to transcend self-interest etc). • Answer: usually an organisational superior.
From Laissez faire to Transactional • Laissez-faire • not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak follow up, passivity, potential for confusion • Transactional leaders • management by exception • passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo • active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error, enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative & risk-taking • constructive transactions, contingent rewards • agree standards/objectives, feedback, PR rewards • outcome: performance that meets expectations. • simplified in One-Min. Manager (Blanchard & Johnson 1982). Airport business books
Transactional leadership • Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP - do they? • Laissez-faire & transactional in directive, consultative, participative & delegative styles • directive + Mgt by Exception'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'. • participative + Mgt by ExceptionLet's work together to identify mistakes' Weaknesses • Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets, systems, controls • management > leadership • fails to develop, motivate, bring to full potential (Bass)
The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's) promotes • follower desire for achievement & self-development. • teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy, belief, value Four 'I's. • lndividualised consideration (IC) • Intellectual stimulation (IS) • Inspirational motivation (IM) • ldealised influence (charisma) (II)
Individualised consideration & Intellectual stimulation IC • identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opps. to learn, delegating, coaching & giving developmental feedback. Spend time with individuals e.g. mentoring. IS • question status quo, encourage imagination, creativity, logical thinking & intuition. • unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation. • compare 1960s UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Yamaha and Seiko
Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence IM • Clear vision, problems as opportunities, language & symbols • I had a dream …... • Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what you can do.. • Go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler. II • Confident in communicating a virtuous vision • The buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence, trust, accomplish > failure. Respected for personal ability Leadership .. the priceless gift you earn from those who work for you. I have to earn the right to that gift, and continuously re-earn (it). John Harvey-Jones (ICI) • Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair • Hitler, Jim Jones
IS IC • Learn TL!! • Avolio-Bass training package II IM ContingentRewards MbEx-A MbEx-P • Sales pitch - encouraging TL will • project confidence, commitment & competence • attract quality staff to mission & challenge • develop people fully to respond better to competition & change LFaire Bass's model effective passive active ineffective
Is transformational leadership cross-cultural? • ‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to authoritarian cultures is like 'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who believe in the divine right of kings'. Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966 • Leadership - a universal phenomenon? • context & culture influences • Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan & Singapore • suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning across cultures ??
Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em? • 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory & research in explaining effect on motivation & performance 'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978) • Are there substitutes making L-behaviour unnecessary e.g. • 'Professional', competent people do not need 'leadership' to perform well & to be motivated. Depends on • the individuals, the work, the organisation & its structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction, group cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of the leader
Exam Question • Review alternative leadership theories and analyse their value in terms of • (a) guiding decisions in selecting managers to run modern organisations • (b) giving pointers to individuals in developing skills and abilities that, in a range of situations, may further their career aspirations.