The ABC’s of Pattern Scoring

# The ABC’s of Pattern Scoring

## The ABC’s of Pattern Scoring

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1. The ABC’s of Pattern Scoring Dr. Cornelia Orr

2. Vocabulary • Measurement – Psychometrics is a specialized application • Classical test theory • Item Response Theory – IRT (AKA logistic trait theory) • 1 – 2 – 3 parameter IRT models • Pattern Scoring

3. Measurement Assigning numbers to objects or events Ex. – time, height, earthquakes, hurricanes, stock market Psychometrics Assigning numbers to psychological characteristics Ex. – personality, IQ, opinion, interests, knowledge General & Specialized

4. Classical Test Theory Item discrimination values Item difficulty values (p-values) Guessing (penalty) Number correct scoring Item Response Theory Item discrimination values Item difficulty values Guessing (pseudo-guessing) values Pattern scoring Different Theories of Psychometrics Similar constructs – Different derivations

5. Number-Correct Scoring Simple Mathematics Raw scores (# of points) Mean, SD, SEM, % correct Number right scale Score conversions Scale scores, percentile ranks, etc. Pattern Scoring Complex Mathematics Maximum likelihood estimates Item statistics, student’s answer pattern, SEM Theta scale (mean=0, standard dev=1) Score conversions Scale scores, percentile ranks, etc. Different Methodsof Scoring

6. Similarities The relationship of derived scores is the same For example, a scale score obtained in a test corresponds to the same percentile for both methods. Differences Methods of deriving scores The number of scale scores possible Number right = limited to the number of items IRT = unlimited or limited by the scale (ex. 100-500) Comparison: Number Correct and Pattern Scoring

7. Choosing the Scoring Method • Which model? • Simple vs. Complex? • Best estimates? • Advantages/Disadvantages? Ex. – Why do the same number correct get different scale scores? Ex. – Flat screen TV – how do they do that?

8. Disadvantages of IRT and Pattern Scoring • Complex Mathematics – Technical • Difficult to explain • Difficult to understand • It doesn’t add up! • Perceived as Hocus Pocus

9. Advantages of IRT and Pattern Scoring • Better estimates of an examinee’s ability • the score that is most likely, given the student’s responses to the questions on the test (maximum likelihood scoring) • More information about students and items are used • More reliability than number right scoring • Less measurement error (SEM)

10. Item Characteristic Curve (ICC)

11. 5 Items (Effects of Item Discrimination) No Typea b c 1 MC 0.0250 300.000 0.2 2 MC 0.0200 300.000 0.2 3 MC 0.0150 300.000 0.2 4 MC 0.0100 300.000 0.2 5 MC 0.0050 300.000 0.2 4 examinees’ response patterns (1=correct) Pattern SEM SS 12345 11100 39 300 01110 46 278 00111 61 258 10011 94 260 Examples

12. 5 items (Effects of item difficulty) No Typea b c 1 1 MC 0.0150 250.000 0.1 2 1 MC 0.0150 275.000 0.1 3 1 MC 0.0150 300.000 0.1 4 1 MC 0.0150 325.000 0.1 5 1 MC 0.0150 350.000 0.1 4 examinees’ response patterns (1=correct) Pattern SEM SS 12345 11100 43 300 01110 43 305 00111 43 299 43 310 Missing easy items can result in a lower scores. Examples