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Engineering Education and the Challenges of the 21st Century

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  1. Engineering Education and the Challenges of the 21st Century Charles M. Vest President, National Academy of Engineering Samuel Ginn Lecture in Engineering Auburn University September 22, 2009

  2. Engineering Education and Challenges • 21st century Engineering and Science • Globalization • Grand Challenges • Innovation • Engineering Education

  3. 21st Century Engineering and Science New Frontiers Interdisciplinary Interrelated Use-Inspired

  4. Frontiers of Technology

  5. Frontiers of Technology Tiny Systems Nano Bio Info Macro Systems Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics

  6. Frontiers of Technology Natural Science Tiny Systems Nano Bio Info Macro Systems Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics Social Science

  7. The Payoff will come from Bridging the Frontiers TINY SYSTEMS Bio Info Nano MACRO SYSTEMS Energy Environment Health Care Manufacturing Communications Logistics … Bio-based materials Biomemetics Personalized, Predictive Medicine Synthetic Biology Biofuels Etc.

  8. Interdisciplinary

  9. Genomic Research

  10. Biology Genomic Research

  11. Biology Clinical Insight Combinatorial Mathematics Genomic Research Robotics And Automation Microfabrication

  12. Interdependent

  13. SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY

  14. Imaging Cell Biology Micro Sensors Brain Research Computation Complex Systems

  15. Imaging Cell Biology Micro Sensors Brain Research Computation Complex Systems

  16. Increasingly Use-Inspired

  17. R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant” Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? No Yes Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Yes Pure Applied Research (Edison) No Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997

  18. R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant” Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? No Yes Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur) Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Yes Pure Applied Research (Edison) No Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997

  19. R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant” Research is inspired by: Consideration of use? No Yes Pure Basic Research (Bohr) Use-inspired Basic Research (Pasteur) Quest for Fundamental Understanding? Yes Former University Presidents (Vest) Pure Applied Research (Edison) No Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997

  20. Globalization R&D Higher Education Movement and Integration

  21. Globalization of R&D and Talent

  22. New R&D Investments R&D Expenditures and Share of World Total Data for 2002 Source: Science and Engineering Indicators, NSF 2008

  23. New Players Where the Expertise is Source: Competitiveness Index 2007, Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC

  24. First Engineering Degrees(China Rises.) China thousands Japan US Source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2006, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC

  25. How do we compare with the Rest of the World? Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

  26. What About the Rest of the World? A Problem Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

  27. Globalization of Higher Education

  28. Research University Globalization Phase I Germany Humboldt University 1800s IITs India 1960’s Acceleration Asia 2000’s Bologna Europe 2010 2000s! Berkeley, Stanford, Michigan, UC, … 1800s /1900s USA Johns Hopkins 1800s MIT, Caltech, RPI, … 1800s / 1900s

  29. Research University Globalization Phase II • Physical Presence in Other Countries • Campuses • Laboratories • Strategic Alliances Between Universities • Virtual Presence in Other Countries • Distance Education • Synchronous • Asynchronous • Open Content: The Emerging Meta-University • Teaching Materials • Scholarly Archives • Telepresent Laboratories

  30. Research University Globalization Phase II • Physical Presence in Other Countries • Campuses • Laboratories • Strategic Alliances Between Universities • Virtual Presence in Other Countries • Distance Education • Synchronous • Asynchronous • Open Content: The Emerging Meta-University • Teaching Materials • Scholarly Archives • Telepresent Laboratories

  31. MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) • Concept: Make the basic teaching materials for 1,900 MIT subjects available on the Web to teachers and learners everywhere free of charge. • Publication -- Not Teaching per se. • An adventure!

  32. 18.0% 19.6% 41.9% 8.4% 4.9% 1.4% 4.4% MIT OCW – Traffic by Region % web hits since 10/1/03

  33. The Meta UniversityA Personal View What we are observing is the early emergence of a Meta University -- a transcendent, accessible, empowering, dynamic, communally-constructed framework of open materials and platforms on which much of higher education worldwide can be constructed or enhanced.

  34. Movement and Integration

  35. Then Brain Drain

  36. Then Now Brain Drain Brain Circulation

  37. Then Now Brain Drain Brain Circulation Next Brain Integration

  38. source: Prof. David Baker, University of Washington

  39. MIT Center for Collective Intelligence Core research question: How can people and computer be connected so that collectively they act more intelligently than any person, group, or computer has ever done before?

  40. Grand Challenges

  41. Grand Challenges for Engineering • Proposed by a committee of amazingly accomplished and innovative people. • Extremely challenging and important. • Deemed to be doable in the next few decades.

  42. Grand Challenges Committee • Bill Perry, chair • Sir Alec Broers • Farouk El-Baz • Wes Harris • Bernadine Healy • Daniel Hillis • Calestous Juma • Dean Kamen • Ray Kurzweil • Bob Langer • Jaime Lerner • Bindu Lohani • Jane Lubchenco • Mario Molina • Larry Page • Rob Socolow • Craig Venter • Jackie Ying

  43. Engineering Grand Challenges Provide Energy From Fusion Make Solar Energy Economical Develop Carbon Sequestration Methods Provide Access to Clean Water Manage the Nitrogen Cycle Restore and Improve Urban Infrastructure Advance Healthcare Informatics Engineer Better Medicines Reverse Engineer the Brain Prevent Nuclear Terror Enhance Virtual Reality Secure Cyberspace Advance Personalized Learning Engineer the Tools of Scientific Discovery

  44. Engineering Grand Challenges www.engineeringchallenges.org Energy Environment Global Warming Sustainability Reducing Vulnerability to Human and Natural Threats Expand and Enhance Human Capability And Joy Improve Medicine and Healthcare Delivery

  45. InnovationNew SystemsDrivers

  46. New Systems for Innovation?

  47. Life Sciences and Information Technology 21st century Innovation

  48. 21st century Innovation Disruptive Technologies For Grand Challenges

  49. Macro Systems especially Energy 21st century Innovation

  50. 21st century Innovation A new Enabling Technology?