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The Scientific Revolution. Before 1500. Where did ppl get their info about the world? Ancient Greek /Roman philosophers/authors The Bible What helped disseminate that info? Printing press Church Schools/Universities Ren /Ref/Exploration. Medieval Views.

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before 1500
Before 1500
  • Where did ppl get their info about the world?
    • Ancient Greek /Roman philosophers/authors
    • The Bible
  • What helped disseminate that info?
    • Printing press
    • Church
    • Schools/Universities
    • Ren/Ref/Exploration
medieval views
Medieval Views
  • The Geocentric Theory (Earth-centered)
    • Aristotle’s theory
    • planets revolved around immovable Earth
    • God placed Earth in center of universe
  • Few people questioned these ideas
    • Why?
ptolemy
Ptolemy

Until mid-1500s

Ptolemy’s theory

Evidence to support Aristotle’s ideas

Earth was center of universe

This theory matched the teachings of the Church.

causes of the sci rev
Causes of the Sci. Rev.
  • Medieval Universities
  • The It. Ren.
    • Renewed emphasis on mathematics
    • Ren. – patronage
  • Navigational problems of long sea voyages
  • Better scientific instruments
scientific awakening
Scientific Awakening
  • Merged sci. & tech
    • Use of mathematics
    • Experimentation
  • Sci. separated from church philosophy
    • Basic ancient truths were questioned
    • Focus on physics, not ethics
new views
New Views
  • The Heliocentric Theory (Sun-centered)
    • Copernicus’ theory
      • Planets revolved around sun
    • 1st new scientific theory in nearly 2,000 yrs
    • Others built on this idea
    • This angered church leaders.
      • Why?
copernicus 1543
Copernicus (1543)

Nicolaus Copernicus

Heliocentric

sun-centered, model of the universe.

Aim to glorify God

tycho brahe late 1500s
Tycho Brahe (Late 1500s)

Tycho Brahe

used observation

Provided mountains of evidence to support Copernicus’ theory.

Could not mathematically support it

Bridge b/w geo & helio

johannes kepler early 1600s
Johannes Kepler (Early 1600s)

Johannes Kepler

Used Mathematics to support Brahe’s observations

each planet moved around the sun in an elliptical orbit

galileo galilei early 1600s
Galileo Galilei (Early 1600s)

Galileo Galilei

Early user of the experimental method

built a telescope and studied the heavens

His discoveries using the telescope

Moon had rough, uneven surface

Sun has dark spots

galileo galilei vs the church
Galileo Galilei vs. the Church
  • Confirmed heliocentric model
    • caused an uproar
  • Galileo’s findings scared the church. Why?
    • Pope summoned him to Rome for trial
  • Under threat of torture
    • Read a confession
    • Admitted ideas of Copernicus were false.
  • Sentenced to house arrest & silence
  • 1992 –Catholic Church accepted his beliefs
isaac newton late 1600s
Isaac Newton (Late 1600s)
  • Argues for a universe governed by natural laws
    • Law of Inertia
      • Something in motion tends to stay in motion
    • Law of Gravity
      • Things tend to fall downward
scientific advances
Scientific Advances

5

The 1500s & 1600s saw breakthroughs in many branches of science.

Baconis the father of the Scientific Method

Descartes is the father of analytical geometry . Believed everything had to be proved by math. “I think, therefore I am.”

Vesalius published the first accurate study of human anatomy.

Fahrenheit/Celsius used thermometers to measure temperature

Janssen invented the microscope

Leeuwenhoek used microscope to see cells & microorganisms.

Torricelli used the barometer to measure atmospheric pressure to predict the weather

14

consequences of the sci rev
Consequences of the Sci. Rev.
  • Rise of the “Scientific Community”
  • The modern scientific method
  • A universe ordered according to natural laws
enlightenment

ENLIGHTENMENT

Knowing others is wisdom, knowing yourself is Enlightenment. Lao Tzu

connections
Connections

Sci. Rev.

showed the power/success of human reason

People apply human reason to natural laws

(laws that govern human nature)

led to - revolution in thinking = Enlightenment

newton
Newton
  • Last of the great figures of the Sci. Rev.
    • Or 1st in the Enlightenment
  • Newton’s laws were starting point for investigating everything in nature
    • Used reason to solve problems:
      • social
      • political
      • economic
the philosophes
The Philosophes

Philosophes: lovers of wisdom

Concentrated on:

Welfare of society

Freedom of individual

Happiness of humanity

Used reason to make reforms to government, law & society

Completely different ideas than the Absolute rulers of the time.

Think critically: HOW? Be able to give examples.

philosophes ideas
Philosophes’ Ideas
  • Nature
    • Took Newton and other scientists’ ideas of natural laws and applied them to social interaction
      • economics and government.
        • Laissez faire & balance of powers
  • Reason
    • Move toward liberty & away from intolerance & prejudice
other ideas
Other ideas
  • Happiness:
    • Lived by nature’s laws, you would find happiness.
    • No need to wait for happiness - heaven
      • Live in happiness, not misery!
  • Progress:
    • Belief society & humankind could be perfected
    • Using science
  • Liberty:
    • Believed that society could be set free.
    • Liberty is necessary to be happy
voltaire
Voltaire
  • Criticized Fr. gov’t, laws, and Christianity
    • Was locked in the Bastille (French jail) & was exiled
  • Most famous writing: Candide,
    • Satire – use of wit and sarcasm to criticize
      • Prejudice
      • Inequality
      • injustice
      • Gov. & laws
      • basically everything he didn’t like
hobbes vs locke
Hobbes vs Locke
  • Read: “Political ideas grew from conflict”
  • Fill in the chart below
  • Be ready to fill in the chart on the board
hobbes locke chart key do on the board
Hobbes & Locke Chart Key(do on the board)
  • Question:
    • Did the English people have the right to rebel against Charles I (1642) & James II (1688)?
  • Thomas Hobbes
    • Wrote Leviathan (“sea monster”)
    • Wrote it 2 years after Charles I was beheaded
    • Horrors of Civil War shaped his beliefs
  • John Locke
    • Wrote Treatises of Government
    • Wrote it 2 years after The Glorious Revolution
hobbes vs locke1
Right of Rebellion

People - no right to rebel against their govt.

Human Nature

Humans are wicked so they must be protected

Naturally cruel, selfish

If not controlled = fight & steal

Right of Rebellion

People oppressed by their govt. every right to rebel

Human Nature

Humans are reasonable so they can make good decisions about how to govern

Free will

Obedience because it is right not out of fear

Hobbes vs Locke
hobbes vs locke2
Role of Government

Govts. protect ppl from their own wickedness & selfishness

Role of Monarch

One ruler should have absolute power to keep society from falling into disorder

Role of Government

Govts. protect 3 basic rights

Life, liberty & property

Role of Monarch

The ruler has a duty to protect these basic rights

Hobbes vs Locke
hobbes social contract
Hobbes – Social Contract
  • Agreement
    • B/w the leader & his people
    • Give up rights for
      • Protection
      • Organized society
  • How does this apply to governments today
    • Give up taxes and freedom
    • For security
slide28

Montesquieu (1689-1755)

The Best government:

  • Separate the powers of the Govt.
    • ensured freedom & liberty.
      • Legislative: make laws
      • Executive: enforce laws
      • Judicial: interpret laws
  • Politically balanced
    • Checks & balances:

(each branch serves as a check on the other branches)

    • “Power should be a check to power”
slide29

Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • Individual Freedom
    • People are naturally good
    • innocence was corrupted by

the evils of society

  • “Men are born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”
  • The Social Contract, 1762.
    • Agreement among free individuals
    • Hobbes: society & government
  • The best government
    • Formed by the people
    • Consent of the governed
      • Direct democracy
beccaria
Beccaria
  • Italian Philosophe
  • Laws exist to preserve order
    • NOT to avenge crimes
  • Criticized abuses of justice
    • Accused should have
      • Speedy trial
      • Punishment should fit the crime
      • Never torture
mary wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Philosophes challenged assumptions
    • But: Traditional view toward women
    • Education: teach how to be wife & mother
  • Wollstonecraft
    • Increased Rights for Women
    • Education for Women = Men
    • Women Should enter male-dominated fields
      • Politics & medicine
questions
Questions
  • What is government supposed to ensure?
  • What are the 3 branches of govt & what do each do?
  • Rousseau believed people were naturally what?
  • What did Rousseau write and his idea of the best form of government?
  • Beccaria believed laws existed for what purpose and if you were in trouble with the law, what 3 things should you get?
  • What did Wollstonecraft fight for?
slide33
To Do: Write these questions down, write your answer to each question and be ready to discuss tomorrow

Security vs. Freedom

  • Are you willing to give up any Freedoms in exchange for better protection from terrorism?
  • The police believe a person has brought a gun to school. Would you allow the police to search your school bag & lockers?
  • A person prints information out at the library on bomb making. What should the librarian do?
  • Several Mid. Eastern males are boarding a plane at O’Hare airport. Should they have to go through extra security?
salons
Salons
  • Wealthy wmn held mtgs in their homes
    • Philosophes discussed ideas
  • Marie-Therese Geoffrin
    • Was a “patron” to the thinkers
  • So why are they important?
    • Gave Enlightenment thinkers a place to share ideas
    • Provided Enlightenment thinkers w/support
slide35

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

  • All things must be examined, debated, investigated w/o exception & w/o regard for anyone’s feelings.
  • We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed.
diderot s encyclop die
Created 28 vol. Encyclopedia

Gathered articles on human knowledge

Articles by thinkers of the day

against slavery

urged for education for all

praised freedom of expression

Widely denounced by govts & church

Diderot’s Encyclopédie
despotism
Despotism
  • Form of govt by which a single entity rules w/ absolute & unlimited power
  • Many philosophes believed best govt was:
    • Monarchy
    • Respected people’s rights
      • Try to convince rulers to rule justly
enlightened despots
Enlightened Despots
  • Enlightened Despots
    • Embraced new ideas
    • Made reforms
  • True Reformers?
    • Just wanted their countries to be stronger
montesquieu despotism
Montesquieu & Despotism
  • The diff. b/w monarchy & despotism:
      • Monarchy - a single person governs by fixed and established laws
      • Despot - governs by his own will
enlightened despots1
Fredrick the Great - Ruled Prussia

Committed to reform

Religious freedom

Reduced censorship

Increased education

Abolished torture

“the first servant of the state

Changes only went so far

Serfdom wrong

But didn’t end it

Needed support of the nobles

Catherine the Great - Ruled Russia

Formed commission to review laws

Religious toleration

Abolishing torture

Abolishing capital punishment

Changes only went so far

Commission accomplished none of the goals

Did nothing to change life of peasants

After a revolt – she gave noble absolute power over them

Enlightened Despots
slide41

The Legacy of the Enlightenment?

  • Belief in Progress
    • Opened door for growth in sci.
    • New discoveries
    • Confidence that humans could solve social probs
  • More secular society (non-religious)
    • Openly question church
    • Promote tolerance of all religions
slide42

The Legacy of the Enlightenment?

3. Importance of the individual

  • Use own ability to reason to judge right & wrong
  • Turn away from the church
  • Art, literature, & music offered new expressions & sounds: Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn
        • YouTube - Beethoven Symphony No.9
        • YouTube - Bach, Toccata and Fugue in D minor, organ

4. Revolutions

  • democratic revs begun in America in 1776 & in Paris in the late 1780s