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Industrialization. Industrialization. Industrialization _______________ 1 . Early 19 th c a. no electricity, refrigeration b . slow communications 2 . Late 19 th c . a. oil – new energy b . electric light – _____________ i . 1890’s – in homes, factories

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industrialization1
Industrialization
  • Industrialization
  • _______________

1. Early 19thc

a. no electricity, refrigeration

b. slow communications

2. Late 19thc.

a. oil – new energy

b. electric light – _____________

i. 1890’s – in homes, factories

c. telegraph – _______________

i. Western Union Co.

d. telephone – ______________

industrialization2
Industrialization

3. Railroads

a. 1869 – ________________

b. 1883 – ________________________

c. Led to growth of new

businesses

i. ______________________

d. faster, cheaper shipping

4. ________________ Process

a. Cheaper way to make steel

b. new construction

i. _________________(1883)

ii. skyscrapers

industrialization3
Industrialization
  • “Big” Business

1. __________________

a. based on Darwin’s theory of evolution

b. used to justify ___________________policy of gov’t

c. businesses compete, best would survive => maximize profits

d. anti-__________

industrialization4
Industrialization

2. new kinds of businesses

a. ______________

i. one company controlled the market

ii. bought out/drove out competition

b. ______________

i. few companies controlled market

industrialization5
Industrialization

3. Steel Industry (1870s’)

a. __________________

b. bought out companies connected to his

(_________ integration)

c. 1901-produced 80%

of steel in US

industrialization6
Industrialization

4. Oil Industry (1870’s)

a. _____________________

b. bought out competing companies (___________ integration)

c.______ – several companies ran as one large one(monopoly)

d. 1880 – controlled 90% of market

e. paid _______ wages, destroyed competition

industrialization7
Industrialization

5. Banking Industry (1900’s)

a. __________________

6. Railroad Industry a. __________________

industrialization8
Industrialization

7. ___________________or Captains of Industry

a. Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan, Vanderbilt

i. “_______ guys” – low wages, kill competition, only profits matter

ii. “_______ guys” – create

jobs, new products, gave to charities

- ____________: Carnegie’s “gospel of wealth”

industrialization9
Industrialization

8. Government Responsea. _________ Antitrust Act (1880)

i. interfering w/free trade(competition) is________

ii. law not enforced for a while

b. some politicians wanted to keep monopolies together

labor movement
Labor Movement

C. Labor Movement

  • Factory Work
  • long hours
  • strict _______________________
  • entire_____________ worked in different areas
  • loud, dirty, dangerous
  • best paying jobs

2. big gap b/t ___________________

  • some pushed to replace _____________with __________(gov’t ownership of businesses; spread out wealth
  • some wanted keep capitalism but reform it
labor movement1
Labor Movement

3. Labor Unions

a. _________________(1869)

i. open to all workers

ii. 8 hr. day; end child laborb. ________________________

(AFL) (1886)

i. _______________________

ii. ______________ union - for

skilled workers only

iii. ______________________– group negotiations

iv. strikes

labor movement2
Labor Movement

c. American Railway Union (1893)

i. __________________

ii. __________union – for skilled/unskilled workers

d. Industrial Workers of the World (__________) (1905)

i. ____________ workers

ii. leaders connected to ____________

labor movement3
Labor Movement

4. Employers Reaction to Unions

a. ___________________

i. to get job, promise to not join union

b. __________________

i. court order to end a strike

labor movement4
Labor Movement

5. Strikes

a. Railroad Strike (1877)

i. first time President

will send _____________to end strike

b. ________________________ (1886)

i. Chicago – union protest against McCormick plant

ii. riot b/t protestors and police

iii. country associating unions w/__________, ___________

labor movement5
Labor Movement

c. Homestead Strike (1892)

i. _________________(private police) hired by company to break steel strike

d. Pullman Strike (1894)

i. rr car company; strike interrupted ______________

ii. injunction issued to end strike; President sent troops

iii. gov’t used Sherman Antitrust Act against

______________

labor movement6
Labor Movement

e. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

(1911)

i. locked doors trapped workers

ii. pressure on

____________ to look into factory working conditions

the guilded age1
The Guilded Age

II. Politics, Immigration, Cities

  • Politics

1. ____________________ policy

a.no/few gov’t rules or regulations on business

b. first discussed in The Wealth of Nations (1776) – _________________

2. Scandals (1870’s)

a. Credit Mobilier– ______________ set up byrr owners, politicians to sell stock/make $

the guilded age2
The Guilded Age

3. Two Party System (1870’s-1920’s)

  • ______________– business, bankers, North, Midwest

- tight money supply, gold standard,

_______tariffs, limits on immigrationb. _______________ – factory workers, immigrants, South, West

c. most states supported D or R; some were swing states (Ohio, NY)

d. “waving the bloody shirt”- ____________Party strategy in elections to get votes by blaming Democrats for ________________

the guilded age3
The Guilded Age

4. Reforming the _____________________

a. spoils system – rewarding friends w/jobs

b. 1881 – Pres. Garfield shot by person passed over for gov’t job

c. 1883 – ______________________________

  • civil service – gov’t jobs; must be qualified; pass test

d. 1884 – first__________electedpresident since before Civil War (Cleveland)

the guilded age4
The Guilded Age

5. New Gov’t Regulations (RR)

a. _____________________

i. Munn v. Illinois – states can regulate intra-state trade

ii. Wabash v. Illinois – fed.gov’t can regulate inter-state trade (RR)

b. _____________________i. Interstate Commerce Act

6. Election of 1896a. who won? - ________________ (Republican back in)

b. 1901 – assassinated in Buffalo

immigration1
Immigration

B. Immigration

1. Trip to America

  • 1860-1920 – 30 million new immigrants
  • 1865-1890: northern, central Europe

i. _____________________ c. 1890-1920: southern, eastern Europe

i. _____________________

ii. religious persecution (Russian Jews); new start

immigration2
Immigration

2. _________________(NY)

  • main entry point to process immigrants from __________i. had to pass physical
  • settled mostly in northern cities

i. South? – too much_____________ for jobs

immigration3
Immigration

3. __________________ (SF)a. immigrants from _______

b. ___________ tried to keep Chinese out who worked for less pay

4. Reaction to Immigrationa. _____________– political movement favoring

native-born Americans

b. ____________________ (1882)i. first law to limit immigrant group

c. ________________________i. limit on Japanese immigrants

urbanization1
Urbanization

C. Growth of _____________1. 1880-1920

a. new immigrants

b. migration from _________, South => 11 million to ________

2. cities grow _____and ______

  • Elevators
  • first skyscraper
  • growth of ___________ due to – better public ___________________

i. subways, elevated trains, cable cars

urbanization2
Urbanization

3. City Life

  • ______________- multi-family apartment buildings

b. overcrowded, dirty, diseases, crime

c. How the Other Half Lives (1890)-_________

i. brought attention to life in tenements, cities

urbanization3
Urbanization

4. Politics in Cities

  • political ____________ – organizations to keep party in power
  • hand out jobs, favors in exchange for ______

i. __________________(NY)

c. machine ran by “boss”

i. _____________________

d. machines attacked in newspapers – political cartoons

i. _____________________

urbanization5
Urbanization

5. Reforms

  • tenement conditions awful
  • ____________________Movement

i. Christian values to improve society

c. _____________________ Movement

i. ____________________

ii. community centers to get assistance

iii. _____________(Chicago)

urbanization6
Urbanization

d. __________________ Movement

i. stop sale, use of _____________

ii. Women’s Christian

Temperance Union; Anti-Saloon League

iii. Carry Nation

iii. linked drinking, bars

w/_________ behavior

iv. _____________– saloons

were places to get news, use phone, socialize

urbanization7
Urbanization

e. ______laws (gambling, drugs, prostitution)

i. Comstock Law - illegal to send obscene material in mail

ii. __________________ fought law – sent __________________ information to women

20 th century1
20th Century

III. Turn of the Century

  • Education
  • public schools
  • 1870 – _______________ diploma rare
  • 1910 – most kids in school

i. one room school, one teacher

ii. learn English, culture,

patriotism (become “________________”)

20 th century2
20th Century

2. College

  • still only for a few
  • more opportunities for _________
  • some opportunities for ____________________________

3. African-Americans

  • views on education

i. ________________________skills

- economic equality first

- _______________________

- Tuskegee Institute

ii. liberal arts education

- _____________________equality

- _____________________

- Niagara Movement (1905) – civil rights group

20 th century3
20th Century

B. Entertainment

  • Recreation
  • ____________

i. The Great Train Robbery (1903)

ii. The Birth of a Nation (1915) – __________

iii. silent films

b. amusement parks

c. sports

i. _______, football, boxing

d. new ___________

i. Hershey Bars, Coca Cola

20 th century4
20th Century

2. Print Media

  • __________________

i. more entertainment – comics, sports

ii. ________ journalism-

cover more scandals, crimes to sell papers

- _______________

- _______________

20 th century5
20th Century

b. “rags to riches” stories

i. __________________

c. Books

i.Huck Finn(Mark Twain)

20 th century6
20th Century

C. ________________________

  • discrimination after ______________________
  • Voting

i. __________________________

to stop blacks from voting

b. segration

i. ______________(in fact) – races separated by custom

ii. _____________(by law) – races separated by laws

=> ___________________laws

iii. separate schools, theatres, hospitals, transportation

20 th century7
20th Century

c. ______________________ (1896)

i. segregation legal as long as separate facilities are equal (“__________________” ok)

d. _________________

i. wrote about _________in

the South

e. North

i. start of Great Migration - blacks moving North

ii. ____________segregation

20 th century8
20th Century

2. Fighting Discrimination

  • different methods

i. ___________– first AA

to visit White House (early 1900’s)

ii. George Washington Carver – educator

b. ______________(1910)

i. civil rights group

ii. DuBois

20 th century9
20th Century

D. Role of Women

1. work in ____________

  • buying more things

i. department stores - _________________

ii. Woolworth’s

iii. Sears, Robuck, and Co.

b. advertising – targeted ___________

20 th century10
20th Century

2. work outside home

  • mostly ______ women
  • less pay
  • nursing, teaching, secretarial

3. new ________________

  • clothes, looks, behavior changed
  • ______________ w/out supervision
  • more active in politics –

working for right to____