slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BIO PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
BIO

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

BIO - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 268 Views
  • Uploaded on

BIO

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'BIO' - guest8776


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 1:pp. 1 - 24

A View of Life

outline
Outline
  • Defining Life - Emergent Properties
    • Materials and Energy
    • Reproduction and Development
    • Adaptations and Natural Selection
  • Classification
    • Organization and Diversity
    • Natural Selection
outline3
Outline
  • Biosphere Organization
    • Human Population
    • Biodiversity
  • The Scientific Method
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Data
    • Conclusion
    • Scientific Theory
defining life
Defining Life
  • Living things:
    • Comprised of the same chemical elements e.g. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • Obey the same physical and chemical laws
    • Living organisms consist of cells (Unicellular or Multi-cellular).
      • The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things e.g. plants, animals, and fungus
      • Cells are produced from preexisting cells
      • Cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
defining life5
Defining Life
  • Living organisms can be Microscopic:
    • Bacteria
    • Paramecium
  • Living organisms can be Macroscopic (Multi-cellular):
    • Snow goose
    • Humans

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Bacteria

Paramecium

Morel

Sunflower

Snow goose

(Bacteria): © Dr. Dennis Kunkel/Phototake; (Paramecium): © M. Abbey/Visuals Unlimited; (Morel): © Royalty-Free Corbis; (Sunflower): © Photodisc Green/Getty Images; (Snow goose): © Charles Bush Photography

defining life6
Defining Life
  • Each level of organization has Emergent Properties
  • Levels range from extreme micro (e.g. Atoms, Molecules and Cells) to global (e.g. Community, Ecosystem and Biosphere)
  • Each level of organization is more complex than the level preceding it
    • Emergent properties:
      • Interactions between the parts making up the whole
      • All emergent properties follow the laws of physics and chemistry
levels of biological organization
Levels of Biological Organization

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

BiosphereRegions of the Earth’s crust,

waters, and atmosphereinhabited by living things

Ecosystem

A community plus

the physical environment

CommunityInteracting populations in a

particular area

PopulationOrganisms of the samespecies in a particular area

OrganismAn individual; complexindividuals contain organ systems

Organ System

Composed of several organs

working together

OrganComposed of tissues functioningtogether for a specific task

TissueA group of cells with a commonstructure and function

CellThe structural and functionalunit of all living things

MoleculeUnion of two or more atoms ofthe same or different elements

AtomSmallest unit of an element composed ofelectrons, protons, and neutrons

living things acquire process food
Living Things: Acquire & Process Food
  • Energy – required to maintaining organization and conducting life-sustaining processes
    • The sun:
      • Ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on Earth
      • Certain organisms, such as plants, capture solar energy to carry on photosynthesis
        • Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into chemical energy (Organic Molecules)
        • Chemical energy is used by other organisms e.g. animals
    • Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell or in an organism.
      • Homeostasis - Maintenance of internal conditions within certain boundaries
acquiring nutrients
Acquiring Nutrients

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

food

a.

d.

e.

c.

f.

b.

a: © Niebrugge Images; b: © Photodisc Blue/Getty Images; c: © Charles Bush Photography;d: © Michael Abby/Visuals Unlimited; e: © Pat Pendarvis; f: National Park Service Photo

living things respond to stimuli
Living Things: Respond to Stimuli
  • Living things interact with the environment and respond to changes in the environment
  • Response ensures survival of the organism and it often results movement
    • Vulture can detect and find carcass a mile away and soar toward dinner
    • Monarch butterfly senses approach of fall and migrates south
    • Microroganisms can sense light or chemicals
    • Even leaves of plants follow sun
  • Activities as a result of Responses are termed behavior
living things reproduce and develop
Living Things: Reproduce and Develop
  • Organisms live and die
  • All living organisms must reproduce to ensure continued existence and maintain population
  • In most multicellular organisms reproduction:
    • Begins with union of sperm and egg (fertilization)
    • Followed by cell division and differentiation
    • Developmental instructions encoded in genes
      • Composed of DNA
      • Long spiral molecule in chromosomes
rockhopper penguins offspring
Rockhopper Penguins & Offspring

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

© Francisco Erize/Bruce Coleman, Inc.

living things adapt to change
Living Things: Adapt to Change
  • Adaptation
    • Any modification that makes an organism more suited to its way of life
    • Organisms become modified over long period time
      • Respond to environmental changes by developing new adaptations
    • However, organisms very similar at basic level
      • Suggests living things descended from same ancestor
      • Descent with modification - Evolution
      • Caused by natural selection
evolution the unifying concept of biology
Evolution, the Unifying Concept of Biology
  • Despite diversity, organisms share the same basic characteristics
    • Composed of cells organized in a similar manner
    • Their genes are composed of DNA
    • Carry out the same metabolic reactions to acquire energy
  • This suggests that they are descended from a common ancestor
classification
Classification
  • Taxonomy:
    • Discipline of identifying and classifying organisms according to certain rules
    • Hierarchical levels (taxa) based on hypothesized evolutionary relationships
    • Levels are, from least inclusive to most inclusive:
      • Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain
      • A level (e.g. phylum) includes more species than the level below it (e.g. class), and fewer species than the one above it (e.g. kingdom)
domains
Domains
  • Bacteria
    • Microscopic unicellular prokaryotes
  • Archaea
    • Bacteria-like unicellular prokaryotes
    • Extreme aquatic environments
  • Eukarya
    • Eukaryotes – Familiar organisms
evolutionary tree of life
Evolutionary Tree of Life

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

BACTERIA

common

ancestor

(first cells)

ARCHAEA

Protists

Photosynthetic

protist

Plants

cell with nucleus

EUKARYA

Fungi

Heterotrophic

Protist

Animals

common ancestor

Past

Present

Time

domains the archaea
Domains: The Archaea

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  • Prokaryotic cells of various shapes
  • Adaptations to
  • extreme environments
  • Absorb or chemosynthesize food
  • Unique chemical characteristics

m

Methanosarcina mazei, an archaeon

1.6

© Ralph Robinson/Visuals Unlimited

domains the bacteria
Domains: The Bacteria

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  • Prokaryotic cells of various shapes
  • Adaptations to all environments
  • Absorb, photosynthesize, or chemosynthesize food
  • Unique chemical characteristics

1.5

m

Escherichia coli, a bacterium

© A.B. Dowsett/SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.

kingdoms
Kingdoms
  • Archaea – Kingdoms still being worked out
  • Bacteria - Kingdoms still being worked out
  • Eukarya
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia
domains the eukaryote kingdoms
Domains: The Eukaryote Kingdoms

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Protists

KINGDOM: Plants

  • Algae, protozoans, slime molds, and water molds
  • Complex single cell (sometimes filaments, colonies, or even multicellular)
  • Absorb, photosynthesize,
  • or ingest food
  • Certain algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants
  • Multicellular, usually with specialized tissues, containing complex cells
  • Photosynthesize food

1 m

r

Paramecium, a unicellular protozoan

KINGDOM: Animals

KINGDOM: Fungi

  • Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals
  • Multicellular with specialized tissues containing complex cells
  • Ingest food
  • Molds, mushrooms, yeasts, and ringworms
  • Mostly multicellular filaments with specialized, complex cells
  • Absorb food1

V

ulpes, a red fox

Coprinus, a shaggy mane mushroom

(Protist): © Michael Abby/Visuals Unlimited; (Plant): © Pat Pendarvis; (Fungi): © Rob Planck/Tom

Stack; (Animal): © Royalty-Free/Corbis

scientific names
Scientific Names
  • Binomial nomenclature (two-word names)- used to assign each organism with two part name e.g. Homo Sapience
  • Universal
  • Latin-based
    • First word represents genus of organism e.g. Homo
    • Second word is specific epithet of a species within the genus e.g. Sapience
    • Always italicized as a Genus species (Homo sapiens)
    • Genus may be abbreviated e.g. Escherichia Coli as E. Coli
natural selection
Natural Selection

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Some plants within a population exhibit variation in leaf structure.

Deer prefer a diet of smooth leaves over hairy leaves. Plants with

hairy leaves reproduce more than other plants in the population.

Generations later, most plants within the population have hairy

leaves, as smooth leaves are selected against.

organization of the biosphere
Organization of the Biosphere
  • Population - Members of a species within an area
  • Community - A local collection of interacting populations
  • Ecosystem – A community plus its physical environment
      • How chemicals are cycled and re-used by organisms
      • How energy flows, from photosynthetic plants to top predators
terrestrial ecosystems a grassland
Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Grassland

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

heat

solar

energy

heat

heat

heat

heat

Chemical cycling

WASTE MATERIAL, DEATH,

AND DECOMPOSITION

heat

Energy flow

marine ecosystems coral reef
Marine Ecosystems: Coral Reef

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

a. Healthy coral reef

1975 Minimal coral death

1985 Some coral death with

no fish present

1995 Coral bleaching with limited

chance of recovery

2004 Coral is black from sedimentation;

bleaching still evident

b.

a: © Frank & Joyce Burek/Getty Images; b (All): © Dr. Phillip Dustan

human populations
Human Populations
  • Humans modify ecosystems
    • Humans negative impact on ecosystems:
      • Destroy forest or grassland for agriculture, housing, industry, etc.
      • Produce waste and contaminate air, water, etc.
  • However, humans depend upon healthy ecosystems for
    • Food
    • Medicines
    • Raw materials
    • Other ecosystem processes
biodiversity
Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity is the zone of air, land, and water where organisms exist
    • Abundance of species estimated about 15 million.
    • The variability of their genes, and
    • The ecosystems in which they live
  • Extinction is:
    • The death of the last member of a species
    • Estimates of 400 species/day lost worldwide
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • Scientific method is a standard series of steps in gaining new knowledge through research.
    • Begins with observation
      • Scientists use their five senses e.g. use visual sense to observe animal behavior
      • Instruments can extend the range of senses e.g. use microscope to see microorganisms
      • Take advantage of prior studies
    • Hypothesis
      • A tentative explanation for what was observed
      • Developed through inductively reasoning from specific to general
the scientific method a flow diagram
The Scientific Method: A Flow Diagram

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Observation

New observations

are made, and previous

data are studied.

Hypothesis

Input from varioussources is used to formulatea testable statement.

Experiment/Observations

Conclusion

The hypothesis is

tested by experiment

or further observations.

The results are analyzed,

and the hypothesis is

supported or rejected.

Scientific Theory

Many experiments and

observations support a

theory.

Courtesy Leica Microsystems Inc.

the scientific method experimentation
The Scientific Method: Experimentation
  • Experimentation
    • Purpose is to challenge the hypothesis
    • Designed through deductively reasoning from general to specific
    • Often divides subjects into a control group and an experimental group
    • Predicts how groups should differ if hypothesis is valid
      • If prediction happens, hypothesis is unchallenged
      • If not, hypothesis is unsupportable
the scientific method34
The Scientific Method
  • The results are analyzed and interpreted
  • Conclusions are what the scientist thinks caused the results
  • Findings must be reported in scientific journals
  • Peers review the findings and the conclusions
  • Other scientists then attempt to duplicate or dismiss the published findings
the scientific method results
The Scientific Method: Results
  • Results or Data
    • Observable, objective results from an experiment
    • Strength of the data expressed in probabilities
    • The probability that random variation could have caused the results
      • Low probability (less than 5%) is good
      • Higher probabilities make it difficult to dismiss random chance as the sole cause of the results
scientific theory
Scientific Theory
  • Scientific Theory:
    • Joins together two or more related hypotheses
    • Supported by broad range of observations, experiments, and data
  • Scientific Principle / Law:
    • Widely accepted set of theories
    • No serious challenges to validity
controlled experiments
Controlled Experiments
  • Experimental (Independent) variable
    • Applied one way to experimental group
    • Applied a different way to control group
  • Response (dependent) variable
    • Variable that is measured to generate data
    • Expected to yield different results in control versus experimental group
controlled experiments38
Controlled Experiments
  • Observations:
    • Nitrate fertilizers boost grain crops, but may damage soils by altering its properties
    • When grain crops are rotated with pigeon pea it adds natural nitrogen
  • Hypothesis:
    • Pigeon pea rotation will boost crop production as much as nitrates
    • Pigeon pea rotation will NOT damage soils
root nodules
Root Nodules

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

nodules

© Dr. Jeremy Burgess/Photo Researchers, Inc.

controlled experiments40
Controlled Experiments
  • Experimental Design
    • Control Group
      • Winter wheat planted in pots without fertilizer
    • Experimental Groups
      • 1-Winter wheat planted in pots with 45 kg/ha nitrate
      • 2-Winter wheat planted in pots with 90 kg/ha nitrate
      • 3-Winter wheat planted in pots that had grown a crop of pigeon peas
    • All groups treated identically except for above
crop rotation study
Crop Rotation Study

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Control pots

Test pots

Test pots

no fertilization treatment

90 kg of nitrogen/ha

Pigeon pea/winter wheat rotation

20

Control Pots

= no fertilization treatment

Test Pots

15

= 45 kg of nitrogen/ha

= 90 kg of nitrogen/ha

= Pigeon pea/winter wheat rotation

Wheat Biomass (grams/pot)

10

Test pots

a. Control pots and test pots

of three types

45 kg of nitrogen/ha

5

0

year 1

year 2

year 3

b. Results

(All): Courtesy Jim Bidlack

controlled experiments42
Controlled Experiments
  • Experimental Prediction:
    • Wheat production following pigeon pea rotation will be equal or better than following nitrate fertilizer
  • Results
    • 45 kg/ha produced slightly better than controls
    • 90 kg/ha produced nearly twice as much as controls
    • Pigeon pea rotation did not produce as much as the controls
controlled experiments43
Controlled Experiments
  • Conclusion
    • Research hypothesis was not supported by results
    • However, research hypothesis was not proven false by negative results
  • Revised experiment
    • Grow wheat in same pots for several generations
    • Look for soil damage in nitrate pots and improved production in pigeon pea pots
controlled experiments44
Controlled Experiments
  • Results
    • After second year:
      • Production following nitrates declined
      • Production following pigeon pea rotation was greatest of all
    • After third year
      • Pigeon pea rotation produced 4X as much as controls
  • Revised conclusions
    • Research hypothesis supported
    • Pigeon pea rotation should be recommended over nitrates
a field study
A Field Study

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2.0

c. Resident male

attacking a male

model near nest

Approaches to

male model

a. Scientist making observations

1.5

1.0

Approaches per Minute

b. Normal mountain

bluebird nesting

behavior

0.5

Approaches to

female mate

resident

male

nest 1

nest 2

0

male

bluebird

model

nest

construction

first egg

laid

hatching

of eggs

Stage of Nesting Cycle

female

mate

d. Observation of two experimental nests provided data

for graph.

© Erica S. Leeds

review
Review
  • Defining Life - Emergent Properties
    • Materials and Energy
    • Reproduction and Development
    • Adaptations and Natural Selection
  • Biosphere Organization
    • Human Population
    • Biodiversity
  • Classification
  • The Scientific Method