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Everything you always wanted to know about JPEG2000 compression, the benefits, the main features, the implimentation...

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About jpeg2000 l.jpg
About JPEG2000

  • New image coding system based on wavelet technology

  • In 2004, it was selected as the mandatory compression format for Digital Cinema


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  • License-free

    • Improved Compression Efficiency

    • Mathematically Lossless Compression

    • Graceful Degradation

    • Scalability

    • Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

    • Robust Transmission

    • Easy Post-Production

    • Region of Interest (ROI)

    • Low Latency

    • Constant Quality through Multiple Generations

    • Encoding - Decoding Processing Power

    • Open Standard


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License-Free

  • The JPEG committee has stated:

    • “Standards should be implementable without payment of royalty and license fees”

    • “Agreements have been reached with over 20 large organizations to allow use of their IP without payment of license fees or royalties”



Mathematically lossless compression l.jpg
Mathematically Lossless Compression

  • It enables a reduction in storage requirement of, on average, 1:2 while still being able to recover the exact original image information.

  • Extremely important feature in fields such as digital archiving, cinema acquisition and medical imaging.

  • Unique advantage in comparison to JPEG, MPEG2, MPEG4


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Graceful Degradation

  • In JPEG 2000 the effect of image compression is a soft blur on high-frequency areas

Image compressed with JPEG 2000 with a compression ratio of 400:1

Image compressed with JPEG 2000 with a 2:1 compression ratio


Scalability l.jpg
Scalability

  • JPEG 2000 is able to extract multiple versions out of a single compressed file

  • This scalability provides

    • Easy proxy generation

    • Region of Interest

    • Bandwidth optimization and adaptative transmission



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Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

  • JPEG 2000 scalability over highly variable channels (over-IP or Wireless) provides a powerful dynamic quality allocation.

    • Giving priority to fundamental data packets allows ‘best achievable quality’ for the available bandwidth

    • Increasing redundancy of fundamental data packets also guarantees a minimum image quality for weak signals


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Robust Transmission

  • JPEG 2000 intrinsic robustness prevents having dramatic visual impact when packets are missing or corrupted

  • JPEG 2000 intra-frame nature gives another advantage to long-GOP formats: it limits the impact of the missing or corrupt packet to a single frame


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Easy Post-Production

  • Easy-Proxy

    From a single file editors can extract a proxy and use full resolution image for the rendering chain

  • Easy Editing

    Intra-frame coding enables editors to easily access each frame


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Region Of Interest (ROI)

  • JPEG 2000 is also able to prioritize a user defined area of the image, to which it will provide the full quality layer


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Low Latency

  • Intra-frame allows every frame to be encoded independently allowing latency of less than 1 frame

  • In comparison, inter-frame encoding formats (e.g. MPEG2, MPEG4) need to work with Groups of Pictures (GOP) that require a longer processing time…….

  • Low latency is a critical consideration in many applications………………..


Constant quality through multiple generations l.jpg
Constant Quality Through Multiple Generations

  • Successive encoding-decoding passes are usually required throughout the Broadcast and Digital Cinema post-production processing chain

  • JPEG 2000 provides a constant image quality throughout the production process


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Processing Power

  • JPEG 2000 is a symmetrical compression technology requiring approximately the same processing power to encode or to decode at any compression quality

  • The JPEG 2000 standard supports every resolution, color depth, number of components and frame rate

  • It is the image compression format most ready to address future applications

Open Standard


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  • Pre-Processing

  • Wavelet Transform

  • Compression

  • Rate Control

  • Data Ordering


Pre processing l.jpg
Pre-Processing

  • The pre-processing block mainly deals with color conversion (or decorrelation):

    • RGB  YCbCr (Irreversible Color Transform)

    • RGB  YUV (Reversible Color Transform)


The discrete wavelet transform l.jpg
The Discrete Wavelet Transform

  • Components are passed recursively through low and high pass Wavelet filters

  • This enables an intra-component de-correlation that concentrates the image information in a small and very localized area and multi-resolution image representation



Compression of the wavelet coefficients l.jpg
Compression of the Wavelet Coefficients

  • By itself the Wavelet Transform does not compress image data; it restructures the image information so that it is easier to compress

  • Once the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has been applied, the output is quantized. The quantized data is then encoded in the Entropy Coding Unit (ECU)


Rate control l.jpg
Rate Control

  • Given a targeted bit-rate, the Rate-Control module adjusts the coding precision of each pixel (small groups of pixels called code-blocks)

  • It embeds all groups of pixels in a succession of Packets. These Packets, along with additional headers, form the final JPEG 2000 code-stream

  • In the last ‘data ordering’ block the preferred scalability (or progression order) is selected

Data Ordering



The implementation l.jpg
The Implementation

  • intoPIX provides the most flexible and powerful range of JPEG 2000 implementations available

  • intoPIX efficient image processing allows implementation on a single FPGA

  • intoPIX technology currently addresses Digital Cinema and Broadcast markets.

  • Since 2004 intoPIX founders have been the editors of the reference open source code - openJPEG: www.openjpeg.org

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