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# Fredy A.Sihombing M.Kom

ini bahan kuliah untuk mata kuliah Arsitektur dan Organisasi Komputer,Fakultas Teknik Dan Ilmu Kompter 2012/2013

## Fredy A.Sihombing M.Kom

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### Presentation Transcript

1. ArsitekturdanOrganisasiKomputer FakultasTeknik & IlmuKomputer 2012/2013 Sumber:1. Paul Carter, PC Assembly Language2. Hamacher. Computer Organization, ed-53. Materikuliah CS61C/2000 & CS152/1997, UCB4. Intel Architecture Software Developer’s Manual Disusun : FredyA.SihombingM.Kom

2. KONVENSI

3. Set Instruksi Intel x86 • OP-CODE DEST,SRC ; DEST  [SRC] OP [DEST] • Hanyasalahsatudari SRC atau DEST dapatberupa memory-operand • ACC: representasiuntuk AL/AX/EAX • Sebagianinstruksimenyebabkanperubahannilai FLAGS, khususnyainstruksi-instruksiAritmatika & Logika

4. DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS

5. Data Transfer Instructions • General-purpose data movement • Move • Conditional Move • Exchange • Stack manipulation • Type-conversion

6. Data Transfer Instructions: • MOV Move • CMOVE/CMOVZ Conditional move if equal/Conditional move if zero • CMOVNE/CMOVNZ Conditional move if not equal/Conditional move if not zero • CMOVA/CMOVNBE Conditional move if above/Conditional move if not belowor equal • CMOVAE/CMOVNB Conditional move if above or equal/Conditional move ifnot below • CMOVB/CMOVNAE Conditional move if below/Conditional move if not aboveor equal • CMOVBE/CMOVNA Conditional move if below or equal/Conditional move if not above • CMOVG/CMOVNLE Conditional move if greater/Conditional move if not less or equal • CMOVGE/CMOVNL Conditional move if greater or equal/Conditional move if not less • CMOVL/CMOVNGE Conditional move if less/Conditional move if not greater or equal • CMOVLE/CMOVNG Conditional move if less or equal/Conditional move if not greater • CMOVC Conditional move if carry • CMOVNC Conditional move if not carry • CMOVO Conditional move if overflow • CMOVNO Conditional move if not overflow • CMOVS Conditional move if sign (negative) • CMOVNS Conditional move if not sign (non-negative) • CMOVP/CMOVPE Conditional move if parity/Conditional move if parity even • CMOVNP/CMOVPO Conditional move if not parity/Conditional move if parity odd

7. Data Transfer Instructions: Summary • XCHG Exchange • BSWAP Byte swap • XADD Exchange and add • CMPXCHG Compare and exchange • CMPXCHG8B Compare and exchange 8 bytes • PUSH Push onto stack • POP Pop off of stack • PUSHA/PUSHAD Push general-purpose registers onto stack • POPA/POPAD Pop general-purpose registers from stack • CWD/CDQ Convert word to doubleword/Convert doubleword to quadword • CBW/CWDE Convert byte to word/Convert word to doubleword in EAX register • MOVSX Move and sign extend • MOVZX Move and zero extend

8. Data Transfer Instructions: Move • MOV DEST,SRC ; DEST  [SRC] • cannot be used to load the CS register • cannot be used to do memory-to-memory transfer

9. Format Instruksi MOV (1/2) REG/MEM  [REG] • MOV r/m8,r8Move r8 to r/m8 • MOV r/m16,r16Move r16 to r/m16 • MOV r/m32,r32Move r32 to r/m32 REG  [REG/MEM] • MOV r8,r/m8Move r/m8 to r8 • MOV r16,r/m16Move r/m16 to r16 • MOV r32,r/m32Move r/m32 to r32 REG/MEM  [SEG-REG] • MOV r/m16,SregMove segment register to r/m16 SEG-REG  [REG/MEM] • MOV Sreg,r/m16Move r/m16 to segment register

10. Format Instruksi MOV (2/2) AL/AX/EAX  [MEM] • MOV AL,moffs8Move byte at (seg:offset) to AL • MOV AX,moffs16Move word at (seg:offset) to AX • MOV EAX,moffs32Move doubleword at (seg:offset) to EAX MEM  [AL/AX/EAX] • MOV moffs8,ALMove AL to (seg:offset) • MOV moffs16,AXMove AX to (seg:offset) • MOV moffs32,EAXMove EAX to (seg:offset) REG  IMM • MOV r8,imm8Move imm8 to r8 • MOV r16,imm16Move imm16 to r16 • MOV r32,imm32Move imm32 to r32 [REG/MEM]  IMM • MOV r/m8,imm8Move imm8 to r/m8 • MOV r/m16,imm16Move imm16 to r/m16 • MOV r/m32,imm32Move imm32 to r/m32

11. Data Transfer Instructions: Conditional Move

12. Format Instruksi CMOVcc • CMOVA r16, r/m16Move if above (CF=0 and ZF=0) • CMOVA r32, r/m32Move if above (CF=0 and ZF=0) • CMOVAE r16, r/m16Move if above or equal (CF=0) • CMOVAE r32, r/m32Move if above or equal (CF=0) • CMOVB r16, r/m16Move if below (CF=1) • CMOVB r32, r/m32Move if below (CF=1) • CMOVBE r16, r/m16Move if below or equal (CF=1 or ZF=1) • CMOVBE r32, r/m32Move if below or equal (CF=1 or ZF=1) • CMOVC r16, r/m16Move if carry (CF=1) • CMOVC r32, r/m32Move if carry (CF=1) • CMOVE r16, r/m16Move if equal (ZF=1) • CMOVE r32, r/m32Move if equal (ZF=1)

13. Data Transfer Instructions: Exchange • XCHG DEST,SRC ;Exchange • [DEST] ↔ [SRC] • BSWAP R32 ;Byte swap • R32[7..0] ↔R32[31..24] • R32[15..8] ↔R32[23..16] • XADD DEST,SRC ;Exchange and add • TEMP ← [SRC] + [DEST] • SRC ← [DEST] • DEST ← [TEMP] • CMPXCHG DEST,SRC ;Compare and exchange /* accumulator = AL, AX, or EAX, depending on whether */ IF ([accumulator] ==[DEST]) { ZF ← 1; DEST ← [SRC] } ELSE { ZF ← 0; accumulator ← [DEST] } • CMPXCHG8B [DATA] ;Compare & exchange 8 bytes IF ([EDX:EAX] ==[DEST]) { ZF ← 1; DEST ← [ECX:EBX] } ELSE { ZF ← 0; EDX:EAX ← [DEST] }

14. Format Instruksi XCHG • XCHG AX,r16Exchange r16 with AX • XCHG r16,AXExchange AX with r16 • XCHG EAX, r32Exchange r32 with EAX • XCHG r32, EAXExchange EAX with r32 • XCHG r/m8, r8Exchange r8 with byte from r/m8 • XCHG r8, r/m8Exchange byte from r/m8 with r8 • XCHG r/m16, r16Exchange r16 with word from r/m16 • XCHG r16, r/m16Exchange word from r/m16 with r16 • XCHG r/m32, r32Exchange r32 with doubleword from r/m32 • XCHG r32, r/m32Exchange doubleword from r/m32 with r32

15. Format Instruksi BSWAP & XADD • BSWAP r32Reverses the byte order of a 32-bit register. • XADD r/m8, r8Exchange r8 and r/m8; load sum into r/m8. • XADD r/m16, r16Exchange r16 and r/m16; load sum into r/m16. • XADD r/m32, r32Exchange r32 and r/m32; load sum into r/m32.

16. Format Instruksi CMPXCHG & CMPXCHG8B • CMPXCHG r/m8,r8Compare AL with r/m8. If equal,ZF is set and r8 is loadedintor/m8. Else, clear ZF and load r/m8into AL. • CMPXCHG r/m16,r16Compare AX with r/m16. If equal,ZF is set and r16 isloaded intor/m16. Else, clear ZF and loadr/m16 into AX • CMPXCHG r/m32,r32Compare EAX with r/m32. Ifequal, ZF is set and r32 isloadedinto r/m32. Else, clear ZF andload r/m32 into EAX • CMPXCHG8B m64Compare EDX:EAX with m64. Ifequal, set ZF and loadECX:EBXinto m64. Else, clear ZF and loadm64 intoEDX:EAX.

17. Data Transfer Instructions: Stack Manipulation • PUSH SRC ; Push onto stack ; GP-regs, SEG-regs, MEM, Immd. • ESP  [ESP] – 4/2 • [ESP]  [SRC]

18. Format Instruksi PUSH • PUSH r/m16Push r/m16 • PUSH WORD [DATA] • PUSH r/m32Push r/m32 • PUSH DWORD [DATA] • PUSH r16Push r16 • PUSH r32Push r32 • PUSH imm8Push imm8 • PUSH imm16Push imm16 • PUSH imm32Push imm32 • PUSH CSPush CS • PUSH SSPush SS • PUSH DSPush DS • PUSH ESPush ES • PUSH FSPush FS • PUSH GSPush GS

19. Data Transfer Instructions: Stack Manipulation • POP DEST ; Pop off of stack ; GP-regs, SEG-regs (-CS), MEM • DEST  [[ESP]] • ESP  [ESP] + 4/2

20. Format Instruksi POP • POP r/m16Pop top of stack into m16; increment stack pointer • POP WORD [DATA] • POP r/m32Pop top of stack into m32; increment stack pointer • POP DWORD [DATA] • POP r16Pop top of stack into r16; increment stack pointer • POP r32Pop top of stack into r32; increment stack pointer • POP DSPop top of stack into DS; increment stack pointer • POP ESPop top of stack into ES; increment stack pointer • POP SSPop top of stack into SS; increment stack pointer • POP FSPop top of stack into FS; increment stack pointer • POP GSPop top of stack into GS; increment stack pointer

21. Data Transfer Instructions: Stack Manipulation • PUSHA/PUSHAD ; Push (16-/32-bit) GP-regs onto stack • POPA/POPAD ; Pop (16-/32-bit) GP-regsfrom stack

22. Data Transfer Instructions: Type Conversion • CBW ; Convert byte to word • AX ← SignExtend[AL] • CWD ; Convert word to doubleword • DX:AX ← SignExtend[AX] • CWDE ; Convert word to doubleword • EAX ← SignExtend[AX] • CDQ ; Convert doubleword to quadword • EDX:EAX ← SignExtend[EAX] • MOVSX DEST,SRC ; Move and sign extend • DEST ← SignExtend[SRC] • MOVZX DEST,SRC ; Move and zero extend • DEST ← ZeroExtend[SRC]

23. Format Instruksi MOVSX & MOVZX • MOVSX r16,r/m8Move byte to word with sign-extension • MOVSX r32,r/m8Move byte to doubleword, sign-extension • MOVSX r32,r/m16Move word to doubleword, sign-extension • MOVZX r16,r/m8Move byte to word with zero-extension • MOVZX r32,r/m8Move byte to doubleword, zero-extension • MOVZX r32,r/m16Move word to doubleword, zero-extension

24. first.asm (1/3) • %include "asm_io.inc" • segment .data • ; • ; These labels refer to strings used for output • ; • prompt1 db "Enter a number: ", 0 ; don't forget nul terminator • prompt2 db "Enter another number: ", 0 • outmsg1 db "You entered ", 0 • outmsg2 db " and ", 0 • outmsg3 db ", the sum of these is ", 0 • segment .bss • ; • ; These labels refer to double words used to store the inputs • ; • input1 resd 100 • input2 resd 1

25. first.asm (2/3) • segment .text • global _asm_main • _asm_main: • enter 0,0 ; setup routine • pusha • mov eax, prompt1; print out prompt • call print_string • call read_int ; read integer • mov [input1], eax; store into input1 • mov eax, prompt2; print out prompt • call print_string • call read_int ; read integer • mov [input2], eax; store into input2 • ...

26. first.asm (3/3) • moveax, [input1]; eax = dword at input1 • addeax, [input2]; eax += dword at input2 • movebx, eax; ebx = eax • mov eax, outmsg1 • call print_string ; print out first message • mov eax, [input1] • call print_int ; print out input1 • mov eax, outmsg2 • call print_string ; print out second message • mov eax, [input2] • call print_int ; print out input2 • mov eax, outmsg3 • call print_string ; print out third message • mov eax, ebx • call print_int ; print out sum (ebx) • call print_nl ; print new-line • popa • moveax, 0; return back to C • leave • ret

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