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Teaching/Learning and Whole School Approaches to ESD/EIU

Teaching/Learning and Whole School Approaches to ESD/EIU

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Teaching/Learning and Whole School Approaches to ESD/EIU

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  1. Reorienting Teacher Education to address Sustainability & International Understanding 22-25 August 2006, Penang, Malaysia Teaching/Learning andWhole School Approaches to ESD/EIU Joy de Leo President, UNESCO APNIEVE Australia

  2. APPROACHES TO EIU/ESD (Stephen Sterling) Education about peace, sustainability, human rights …. Accommodating response Emphasis on content, information, knowledge Easily integrated into curricula and existing paradigms May not change values and behaviours Education for peace, sustainability, human rights …. Adaptive response - Learning for change Includes knowledge, values and skills Reform curricula but within existing paradigms Values contradictions may occur between taught & practised values Education as peace, sustainability, human rights …. Transformativeresponse – Learning as change – Content = Context Emphasises process, quality learning, the whole person, whole school community, facilitates transformative learning experiences Creative, participative, dynamic, integrated, holistic, relational, collaborative

  3. INTEGRATED EDUCATION Integrating ESD/EIU across the school curriculum: Verticallyfor all ages/year levels using pedagogical approaches appropriate to the age group Horizontally across all subject areas, by reflecting the values and taking a systems, transdisciplinary approach There are considerable implications for education policy, curriculum development, pre service/in-service teacher training, for teachers to adopt a holistic, systems-thinking approach across subjects and learning areas.

  4. Transdisciplinarity Based on Universal Values & Principles

  5. Redesigning Curricula & Teacher Education • Integration of ESD/EIU Principles & Values across all learning areas - Transdisciplinary approach • Project-based, scenario-based learning & problem solving approach drawing on local, national & global issues & case studies • Curriculum frameworks leading to outcomes based on ESD/EIU knowledge, skills, values, behaviours .. • Assessment approaches that show thinking & action skills & attitudinal/behaviour change not just memorisation • Participatory, consultative approach to developing dynamic, flexible, curriculum frameworks based on progressive experience & action learning • Build in processes for ongoing curriculum change

  6. PROCESS - Holistic Integrative Education Education is about the development of the whole person; physically, intellectually, emotionally and spiritually (Delors) A Pedagogy for the Whole Person  An integrative, holistic methodologybrings together: cognitive – intellect – knowledge & awareness affective – emotions – attitudes, values behavioural - physical skills – actions & behaviours spiritual – inspiration – commitment to transform & to bring about change (all)

  7. FOUR PILLARS OF LEARNING Learning to Know HEAD Knowledge Learning to Be HEART Awareness Understanding Learning to Do HAND Skills, Actions Learning to Live VALUES Attitudes Together Sustainably Learning to Transform is a process which involves all pillars

  8. W.I.S.E. MODEL – Map for the Process of changeW.I.S.E. Model – Wholistic Integrated Science & Education Research InstituteLearning to Transform(Systems & Transdisciplinary Thinking) Learning To Lead Strategic Thinking PRINCIPLES Learning To Be Reflective Thinking AWARENESS 8 Learning To Know Critical Thinking KNOWLEDGE Learning To Create Creative Thinking VISION 1 7 Learning To Learn Grow, Develop Constructive Thinking ETHICS 2 Learning To Care Relational Thinking UNDERSTANDING 3 6 4 5 Learning To Do Applied Thinking SKILLS Learning To Live Together Harmonious Thinking VALUES

  9. The Teaching - Learning Process Accommodates diverse learning styles & cultures Address all ways of learning: - cognitive, affective, moral/spiritual, practical/manual/active Develops: - knowledge, understanding, values, attitudes, skills, behaviours Active, interactive, participative, issue & scenario-based Dialogical – reflection, discernment and critical thinking Teach/learn for relevance and meaning The process models/reflects the values Draws out full creative potential Appropriate to the age level Qualitative and quantitative assessment & evaluation Process & practices informed by ‘whole systems’ thinking

  10. The APNIEVE Teaching and Learning Cycle Cognitive Level KNOWING about oneself and others; their behavior, culture, history, country, etc. ACTIONUNDERSTANDING non-violent conflict-resolution oneself and others, concepts, decision-making, key issues, and processes Behavioral levelConceptual level VALUING experience-reflection accepting, respecting, appreciating oneself and others Affective Level

  11. World Person as Local, Community and Global citizen Nation CONTEXT - THE PLACE OF THE LEARNER Community Family Self as individual & member of society

  12. The Role of the Teacher • Teacher as role model – lives the values • Students learn by example, by what they see & experience • Teacher as guide & facilitator to draw out the knowledge, skills, values to integrate for action • Teacher cares, understands, encourages, accepts & celebrates learner differences and contributions to others • Teacher motivates, enthuses & inspires the learner • Teacher as co- learner, willing to explore & discover together • Seeks teachable/learning moments to integrate ESD/EIU • Self observation, continuous self development, action learning

  13. Learning Environment conducive to ESD/EIU Reflects ESD/EIU values & principles across all aspects of school Student–centred - Teacher as role model, facilitator, co-learner Observes human rights – is equitable and inclusive Is safe, secure, supportive, respectful, valuing of all Is active, participative & involves students in decision making Encourages critical reflection, discussion, questioning Integrates learning across curriculum – uses teachable moments Fosters the full development & potential of the whole child Provides a wide range of learning opportunities for diverse learning styles, abilities & preferences Involves the learner’s experience, builds on their interests Involves the whole school community – identify shared values

  14. LEARNING STYLES Different approaches or ways of learning: Visual Learners - learn best through seeing from visual displays, diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts, hand-outs Auditory Learners - learn best through listening lectures, discussions, listening to others, reading text aloud, radio/TV & tape recordings. They interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed etc Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners- learn best through moving, doing & touching, a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. It’s hard for them to sit still & are distracted easily by their need for activity & exploration

  15. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - Howard Gardner Catering to all 7 different abilities Visual/Spatial - ability to perceive the visual Verbal/Linguistic - ability to use words & language Logical/Mathematical - ability to use reason, logic & numbers Bodily/Kinesthetic - ability to control body movements and handle objects skillfully Musical/Rhythmic - ability to produce & appreciate music Interpersonal - ability to relate & understand others Intrapersonal Intelligence - ability to self-reflect & be aware of one's inner state of being Others:Natural,Emotional and SpiritualIntelligences

  16. Whole school approach to ESD/EIU Reflected across the whole school in: • all school policies and guidelines • actions/behaviour of students, teachers, staff & parents • the articulated school mission, purpose and values • thecurricula and learning materials in all subject areas • the teaching/learning process, methodology, pedagogy • the whole school culture and environment

  17. Whole School Approach - Guiding Principles • Develop a whole school culture committed to ESD principles • Go beyond awareness-raising to action learning & integration with school curricula • Involves whole school community including teachers, students, administrative staff, grounds staff, parents • Involves school's local community including environment experts, business, government, NGOs, encouraging more sustainable practices & processes in broader community • Develop relationships with organisations that impact on school management (eg properties, facilities, operations, supplies) • Founded on sound theory & practice in schools & school systems, quality teaching & learning, values education, socio-cultural & environmental change, organisational & systems theory, action research & community development • Encourages schools to achieve measurable social, environmental, educational & economic outcomes

  18. Features of a whole school approach to ESD/EIU • School leadership uses democratic & participatory whole-school decision-making processes & includes ESD in school planning • Whole-school participation in action & improvement plans • Reciprocal community, family and stakeholder partnerships • Participatory learning approaches to develop thinkingskills, intercultural understanding, participation & citizenship • Integration of ESD/EIUacross all curriculum learning areas • Key messages, values & ideas reflected in non formal curriculum • Professional development for teachers, management & partners • Greening & multiculturing the school & surroundings • Reducing the school's ecological footprint • Monitoring, reflection and evaluation to inform future actions • The school becomes a 'learning organisation' • Reflective practice & action research among teachers

  19. Effective whole-school programs need to be : • Relevant - to school, community & stakeholder needs national curricula & local environmental priorities • Resourced - with ESD/EIU expertise, supporting materials, facilitators & long-term commitment • Reflective - skilled in critical reflection & evaluation at all levels – strive to become a 'learning organisation' • Responsive - to local & cultural context, flexible & open to new models & best practice examples • Reformative -have the capacity to change/transform according to new ways of thinking & practice

  20. Critical Success Factors Multi-stakeholder partnerships Skills & expertise in ESD/EIU OR Professional Development Broadening existing EE programs to all ESD/EIU perspectives Political support and/or program autonomy Allocating resources & time frames Program Support – facilitators, exchanges, networking Align programs with existing national educational, environmental & sustainability policies & influence new policy Align programs to national curricula to show schools& teachers relevance to core commitments & priorities Link to existing initiatives Accreditation & Certification - recognition attracts other schools Investing in monitoring and evaluation to inform development

  21. Whole school process ESD/EIU whole school processes involve: • Envisioning or futures thinking Imagining potential futures as a motivator & to understand or discover how to reach preferred sustainable ones • Identifying shared values to work together for change • Systemic, transdisciplinary thinking - holistic, integrated, relational, joined-up thinking, to see whole picture, recognise inter relationships & patterns in natural, social & economic systems, to address root causes of complex problems • Critical & reflective thinking – empowers people to identify influences on thoughts & actions & to choose appropriately • Participation in decision making – empowered to make decisions for sustainability to build capacity & ownership of solutions • Partnerships for change – with government, NGOs, business, to share responsibility & learnings, to change perspectives

  22. IMPLICATIONS OF SYSTEMS THINKING • Requires shifts in perception about learning & knowing, for different ways to teach & organise learning. • Study systems as complex integrated wholes not just parts • Focus on networks of relationships & patterns in communities or systems rather than on parts, leads to understanding • Shift from analytical to contextual & critical thinking for project-based learning rather than separate subjects • Educator as facilitator rather than expert giving knowledge • Learners develop an understanding of the processes of change & transformation, rather than knowing the right answers • Encourages participatory & inter/trans disciplinaryapproaches • Focus on problem solving for better sustainable solutions • Helps accept uncertainty to participate & learn from change

  23. Why use Critical (Reflective) Thinking? • To critically question assumptions, recognise bias, interests, motivations behind events & power relationships • Allows a deeper understanding of how different political, economic & social structures lead to sustainability • Helps look beneath the symptoms of unsustainable practice & problems to find deeper underlying root causes • Helps explore influence of culture in shaping world views • Creates personal relevance of change for sustainability through clarifying values & their origins. • Develops ability to participate in change, individually & collectively, to empower learners to shape own lives • Reflection on what sustainability means in own lives, inspires contribution to change • Provides new perspectives for viewing the world, enabling learners to identify obstacles & opportunities for change. • Helps to construct & explore alternative ways of thinking.

  24. WHY USE PARTNERSHIPS FOR CHANGE? • Create synergies and mutual learning between organisations to work for change • Bring together people & partners with different perspectives to reconcile interests & challenge world views • Foster building shared visions among partners • Allow partners to combine resources & talents • Increase capacities to attract financial & technical support • Help to break hierarchies & power relationships by linking partners at different levels & across different disciplines • Add value to local initiatives while maintaining relevance • Help motivate partners to work towards long term institutional change

  25. PARTNERSHIPS at every level(ie local, national, regional, global) • Global partnerships are two-way, closed & exclusive: • Government ↔ Business • Need three-way, open, inclusive partnerships:

  26. Benefits for Schools • The opportunity to achieve curriculum requirements in key subjects/learning areas eg conducting an environmental audit of the school addresses Mathematics & English outcomes • Reduced consumption of resources & improved management of the school grounds • Teachers and students working on real-life problems and outcomes • Professional development opportunities for the whole school staff • The school as a model for sustainability within the local community

  27. Implications for Teacher Training • Awareness & knowledge of key ESD/EIU issues particularly those relevant to the local context • Systems thinking, critical & analytical thinking skills • Ability to identify, clarify, develop and live the values • Understand the processes of human development, values formation and the process of change • Develop skills in appropriate teaching/learning processes and methodologies to integrate relevant content and values in school curricula, classroom practice & whole school • Develop communication, values clarification & consensus skills with students, parents and the school community • Awareness of available materials and resources and ability to develop own resources relevant to diversity & ESD/EIU

  28. CASE STUDIES - Whole School Approach • China's Green School Project (1996)- MOE initiativefunded by the State EPA. Run by the Centre for Environmental Education & Communications (CEEC) The program's key focus areas include: • Whole-school environmental management & protection • EE curriculum • Professional development • Greening of school grounds • Green School awardsat municipal, provincial, national levels(15,000 schools have received awards so far)

  29. CASE STUDIES - Whole School Approach New Zealand’s Enviro schools (2002) Began with 3 pilot schools, then expanded. Regional Coordinators support 2 options for schools: • a three year facilitated program, and/or • an award scheme for schools Whole-school approaches to sustainability based on themes of: • organisational principles • operational practices • physical surroundings • a living curriculum

  30. CASE STUDIES - Whole School Approach Australian Sustainable Schools – Dept Environment & Heritage • Sustainable Schools integrate sustainability education into a holistic program with measurable environmental, economic, educational & social outcomes • Improvement in a school's management of resources & grounds (including energy, waste, water, biodiversity, landscape design, products & materials) & integrates into the existing curriculum & daily running of the school • Action based involving whole school community in the sustainable management of the school • Sustainable Schools does not replace other environmental education initiatives in schools. It links to & complements existing environmental education programs such as Energy Smart Schools, WasteWise, Waterwatch, Waterwise, Landcare www.deh.gov.au/education/sustainable-schools/index.html

  31. SPECIFIC SCHOOL CASE STUDY South Australia – Aldgate Primary School • Commitment to environmental care & action • Values & Futures Education focus on being knowing & doing • In the process of moving from EE to ESD • Learning together about more sustainable lifestyles through simple, everyday changes that make a real difference • The 4 strands are: air/energy, water, resource use/waste management, and biodiversity • Students are partners in decision making, designing their learning activities, deciding school directions & priorities, & participating actively in the ESD focus • Develop positive, genuine relationships among children, staff & families, supporting each other • Students actively work in a wide range of learning activities that involve staff, peers, parents, & the community. www.aldgateps.sa.edu.au/

  32. SOURCES Some information in this presentation was adapted from: www.aries.mq.edu.au Henderson, K and Tilbury, D. (2004) Whole school approaches to Sustainability: An international review of whole-school sustainability programs The draft South Australian Sustainable Schools Implementation Plan

  33. Reorienting Teacher Education to address Sustainability & International Understanding 22-25 August 2006, Penang, Malaysia Teaching andWhole School Approaches to ESD/EIU Joy de Leo President, UNESCO APNIEVE Australia

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